Territoires, réseaux

Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)  

Revue

Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement - Territoires, réseaux

Local Actions in the Post-carbon Transition: A Simulation of the Macroeconomic Effects

In 2009 a programme –“Re-thinking Society in a Post-carbon Society”– steered jointly by the Foresight Department of the French Ecology Ministry and the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), was launched in France. It is still ongoing and aims to produce a final report in 2013. The idea of a transition towards a “post-carbon” society includes four main objectives: reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 to one quarter of what they were in 1990; near-autonomy with regard to carbon energies (petrol, gas, coal); an adequate capacity to adapt to climate change and, lastly, greater attention to situations of “energy precariousness”.

As part of the dossier Futuribles is devoting to this programme this month, Cédric Allio, Henri Waisman and Jean-Charles Hourcade present here the study carried out by CIRED (International Research Center on Environment and Development) on the role played by local action in the post-carbon transition. The authors begin by reminding us of the importance of the transport sector in the increase in energy demand and in greenhouse gas emissions, and the need to bring about significant changes in individuals’ mobility behaviours if a post-carbon transition on a substantial scale is to be achieved. To do this, local initiatives could be crucial, given their impact on the spatial organization of territories, and could complement the measures put in place at higher levels (national, European or global). This is what clearly emerges from the model developed by CIRED to study the interactions between local and global levels in the post-carbon transition and to provide a macroeconomic frame for the scenarios envisaged in the “Post-carbon Cities” programme. The authors offer a comparison of two scenarios for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by half by 2050, but doing so by very different transition processes, and they show how, in these two contexts, local and global actions are interconnected and how that connection and a correct spacing of actions over time are crucial for carrying through a post-carbon transition.

Revue

Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement - Territoires, réseaux

Towards Post-carbon Cities: Six Contrasting Scenarios

In recent decades, many studies and international gatherings at the highest level have raised awareness among the general public of the serious risks posed, on the one hand, by global warming and, on the other, by the possible exhaustion of fossil fuel resources. In this context, the idea of a transition towards a so-called “post-carbon” society has gradually been gaining ground. This has a number of central objectives: the reduction of greenhouse gases by 2050 to one quarter of their 1990 levels (in the countries of the North), near autonomy with regard to carbon-based energies (oil, gas and coal), an adequate capacity for adaptation to climate change and, lastly, greater attention to situations of energy precariousness.

This is why in 2009 a programme was launched, steered jointly by the Foresight Mission of the French Ecology Ministry and by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), called “Rethinking Cities in a Post-carbon Society”. This programme’s work is still on-going towards a final report planned for 2013. This month, Futuribles is devoting a special dossier to it, coordinated by Jacques Theys, who launched this programme, and Éric Vidalenc who now coordinates it with Nathalie Etahiri.

Their article, which opens this dossier, outlines the approach and thinking at the heart of this study, which provides a deep analysis of the role cities play –or might play– in the promotion of major developments and changes to encourage a post-carbon society. In it, most importantly, the authors present the six transition scenarios that have been developed with the aim of proposing various possible routes to post-carbon cities in 2050 through highly concrete initiatives and measures in the fields of transport and housing policy, on decisions around energy, housing conditions, lifestyles etc. Lastly, they stress a major issue underlying such an ambition –namely, the way that short-, medium- and long-term goals hang together.

Artisans du futur

Entreprises, travail - Territoires, réseaux

“Terre de liens”: The Green Shoots of Organic Growing

For almost a year now, Futuribles journal has been opening its columns to organizations or individuals who are real actors in the economic and social field, initiators of constructive or innovative approaches conducing to the common good. Through the “Actors’ Words” rubric and, from this issue onwards the “Makers of the Future” column, these actors provide evidence of what can really be done to progress towards a future that is chosen rather than imposed. This month, Marthe de La Taille-Rivero presents the work of the “Terre de liens” association, which provides support for project developers wishing to acquire land in rural or commuter-belt areas and encourages the creation of activities that are ecologically responsible and promote social solidarity. After reminding us of the conditions in which the association emerged, she outlines the legal and financial instruments that have enabled this staunchly apolitical association to strengthen its base in France and extend its action for greater solidarity in the countryside, for new forms of territorial planning and for the spread of environmentally friendly agriculture.

Revue

Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement - Territoires, réseaux

Post-carbon Society: Pioneering Cities

In 2009 a programme was launched, steered jointly by the Foresight Mission of the French Ecology Ministry and by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), called “Rethinking Cities in a Post-carbon Society.” The programme’s work is still on-going towards a final report planned for 2013. The idea of a transition towards a “post-carbon” society embraces four main objectives: the reduction of greenhouse gases by 2050 to one quarter of their 1990 levels, virtual autonomy in respect of carbon-based energies (oil, gas and coal), an adequate capacity for adaptation to climate change and, lastly, greater attention to situations of energy precariousness.

As part of the dossier Futuribles is devoting, this month, to this programme, Cyria Emelianoff and Elsa Mor show, in this article, how certain cities have gradually taken this subject on board, developing –often thanks to civil society initiatives and the emergence of networks of pioneering cities at the European level– highly ambitious strategies of transition towards less carbon energy consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Here they outline two concrete cases of cities that are highly active in this field, Hanover and Bristol, showing their aims, the strategies deployed, the levers used and the results obtained. They particularly stress the importance played in these two transitions by the economic and environmental departments coming together on the question, and also by the development of “multi-partner” approaches. They are, nevertheless, critical of the difficulties in establishing proper “multi-scale climate governance” involving –above and beyond these pioneering cities– the regional, national, European and international levels, with a view to a more large-scale post-carbon transition.

Revue

Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement - Territoires, réseaux

Area Plans for “Factor 4”: Trajectories to 2020, 2030 and 2050 in the Tours Conurbation

In 2009 a programme –“Re-thinking Society in a Post-carbon Society”– steered jointly by the Foresight Department of the French Ecology Ministry and the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), was launched in France. It is still ongoing and aims to produce a final report in 2013. The idea of a transition towards a “post-carbon” society includes four main objectives: reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 to one quarter of what they were in 1990; near-autonomy with regard to carbon energies (petrol, gas, coal); an adequate capacity to adapt to climate change and, lastly, greater attention to situations of “energy precariousness”.

As part of the dossier Futuribles is devoting to this programme this month, this article represents a highly informative case study of the implementation of an area strategy for transition to “factor 4” –that is to say, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 to one quarter of what they were in 1990. Baratier, Beauvais and Métais show how, largely on the basis of its “Territorial Coherence Plan” (ScoT), the Tours conurbation has set about equipping itself, in a two-stage process (with target dates of 2020 and 2030), to achieve a post-carbon transition by 2050. They outline the key measures and objectives by sector and major energy consumption element, aiming to modify lifestyles in the conurbation so as to make Tours a “low carbon” city, a city of localities. Local public action, which is essential for successfully achieving such a transition, cannot, of course, be effective without convergent efforts at all levels. Lastly, above and beyond this interconnectedness of public policies, the authors stress a number of questions that are equally crucial (in terms of timescales, economic investment, democracy etc.) in the implementation of a “territorial factor 4”.

Actualité du futur

Territoires, réseaux

L’avenir des Pays de la Loire en BD

Dans le cadre d’un projet « Pays de la Loire 2040 », la région a demandé à des binômes de dessinateurs de bande dessinée (un dessinateur local et un extérieur à la région) d’illustrer leur vision des avenirs possibles de la région. La Web TV du Conseil régional nous offre la possibilité d’écouter deux binômes évoquer leur travail basé sur les travaux de prospective et le rapport du projet « Pays de la Loire 2040 ». Téhem et Jimmy Beaulieu ont ...

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Revue

Territoires, réseaux

Controlling Property Rents: Steering Property Rents, the Key to Urban Policy

According to figures from the Abbé-Pierre Foundation, in 2012 almost nine million people in France were affected by the housing crisis (either without a personal place of abode, living in very difficult or overcrowded housing conditions, unable to pay their monthly rent or having, involuntarily, to live in the homes of others). If to these housing difficulties we add the need on the part of local authorities, particularly urban ones, to take account of the new approach to energy and the environment (the fashionable concept of the “sustainable city”) in a decade-long context of very high land and property prices (as compared with household incomes), then French local communities face a stiff challenge. However, Marc Wiel argues in this article that it is not insurmountable, provided that local institutions and those in charge of sectoral policies relating to housing in the broader sense (urban policies, transport policies, housing aid etc.) cooperate closely, with a view to controlling “property rents”.

Marc Wiel begins by showing how the process of urban development is not under control in France –largely because of the way that “property rents” are formed. He prefers this latter term to that of “increase in housing costs” on the grounds that it isn’t the costs of construction or demography or shortage that explain this price-rise. He then stresses the disadvantages in the fields of housing, transport and spatial planning, of not controlling property rents, together with the collective costs that ensue. Wiel proposes a new conceptual framework for grasping the (crucial) interactions between transport and urbanism and enabling the public authorities to correct the imperfections of the market and to influence the choice of location of the various actors (households, businesses, services etc.). Lastly, he formulates a variety of recommendations aimed at regulating the processes of urban development and spatial planning better and more fairly, through transport, movement and housing policies and by way of more collaborative work on the part of the actors concerned and a reform of the institutions in which they operate.

Revue

Territoires, réseaux

France: Entry Gateways and Flows. Four Scenarios to 2040

Within the framework of the series begun in May 2012, aimed at echoing the “Territories 2040” exercise launched in France by the DATAR in 2009, Nadine Cattan presents the lessons learned by the working group she chaired on “Entry Gateways to France and Territorial Flow Systems.” She begins by detailing the analytical framework within which the group worked: the definition of the different types of flows (linked to mobility and leisure, to the information and knowledge economy, to the economy and finance and, lastly, to energy needs and constraints) and the various categories of gateways related to those flows (“place-gateways” and “corridor-gateways”, “territory-gateways” and “network-gateways”, and, lastly, “individuals-gateways” and “objects-gateways”).

Nadine Cattan then outlines the four major problematics at the heart of the foresight approach so far as these flow systems are concerned –territorialization, responsibility (in particular, the ability to regulate and control the territorial system), attractivity and vulnerability– together with the challenges associated with these. On this basis, 10 processes were identified that can explain the developmental dynamics of the system up to the year 2040. Using various combinations of these, four possible scenarios were identified: a “polarized” scenario characterized by a high degree of mobility at the global level, metropolization and high transport-related energy consumption; a “diluted” scenario involving a reduced quantity of journeys and a dematerialization of exchanges, but high levels of energy consumption within living spaces; an “archipelized” scenario, in which global space is structured around a number of large-scale autonomous nodes, long-haul mobility is limited and energy consumption low, but there are great inequalities; and, lastly, a “fluidified” scenario of a hypermobile, networked society, in which individual mobility increases enormously, but new territorial regulatory frameworks are required.

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Territoires, réseaux

The Counterfeiting of Hazardous Products on the Internet

More than nine million counterfeit products were seized by the French customs in 2011, among which were a million and a half articles seized from carriers of express goods –in other words, articles from individual Internet orders. This latter figure attests to an expanding phenomenon which is as yet difficult to measure precisely, but could turn out to have serious consequences both for consumers and for certain sectors of the economy: namely, the growing distribution of counterfeit products –particularly, hazardous products– by way of the Internet.

Franck Guarnieri and Éric Przyswa present the main issues here, first recalling the particular context that the Internet represents for counterfeiters, together with the reality of the phenomenon and the inherent dangers. They also stress the difficulty of fighting counterfeit goods on the Internet at the international level, because debate and action are too targeted on the legal aspects (intellectual property in particular) or deal with cybercriminality without really confronting counterfeiting, and are based on a loose conglomeration of institutions that co-operate very little with one another. In this context, and given the prospects they foresee for the “counterfeiting/Internet” combination in the years to 2020, Guarnieri and Przyswa have formulated a number of recommendations for solving the problem. These consist, among other things, in recognizing the increasing overlap between the real and virtual worlds and the difficulty of regulating trade on the Internet. It is, they argue, through organizing “resilience” by way of good security strategies and a cooperative logic that the individuals, companies and institutions concerned will be able to confront the distribution of counterfeit products on the Internet, it being out of the question to eliminate them once and for all.

Bibliography

Territoires, réseaux

Comment vivrons-nous dans nos villes en 2050 ?

Ce hors-série de la revue Terra eco est consacré à l’avenir de la ville et à la ville durable. Alors qu’en 2050, les deux tiers des habitants de la planète seront urbains et que des crises énergétiques et climatiques s’annoncent, il est devenu nécessaire, selon les contributeurs du numéro, de repenser complètement le fonctionnement des villes.Les villes devront en effet relever de nombreux défis au cours des 40 prochaines années : baisse de la dépendance au pétrole ...

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Revue

Territoires, réseaux

Low-Density Spaces in France to the Year 2040

Continuing the series begun in May 2012 aimed at reflecting the “Territories 2040” foresight exercise launched in France in 2009 by DATAR, Laurence Barthe and Johan Milian present here the lessons learned by the working group on low-density spaces, of which they were members. After going over the statistical definition of these spaces, how that definition has changed over time and the characteristic typology of the spaces, they give an account of low-density French territories based on four major areas of observation: the different populations involved, the changes to their economic fabric, their powers of attraction and their modes of social regulation.

Stressing that the place of these spaces in the spatial order has changed greatly in recent years, with what were once “territories in difficulty” becoming more attractive territories offering new opportunities, Barthe and Milian outline the five scenarios envisaged for the years to 2040: “Community Archipelagos” (demographic shrinkage and deregulation); “Productive Platforms” (strengthening of productive activities in agriculture, energy and the environment); “Low Density Reabsorbed” (in other words, overtaken by urban sprawl); “Enterprising Systems” (banking on innovation); and “The Urban Areas’ Forward Zone” (these territories becoming part of a more general paradigm of “sustainable towns/cities”).

Barthe and Milian go on to analyse two major challenges for low-density spaces in relation to the more general work carried out as part of Territories 2040: the enhanced capacity of these territories (in other words, their ability to control their destinies and find a place in the overall territorial system) and the ecological development of their resources.

Analyse prospective

Économie, emploi - Territoires, réseaux

Les finances des collectivités

Il y a tout juste 30 ans et dans les années qui ont suivi, l’acte I de la décentralisation se traduisait par un triple transfert de l’État aux collectivités locales. — De pouvoir : fin du contrôle a priori du préfet et liberté donnée aux collectivités d’élaborer, d’exécuter leur budget et de recourir à l’emprunt, l’État n’exerçant plus qu’un contrôle réglementaire (ou de légalité) a posteriori.— De compétences : collèges, lycées, action sociale, urbanisme, etc ...

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Chapitre Territoires, réseaux

Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.