Société, modes de vie
Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)
Over the last two decades there has been a marked rise in alternative belief systems. Guy Michelat analyses this phenomenon, drawing on studies that he has made in collaboration with Daniel Boy, and he offers several observations.
According to his findings, women are more likely to be believers than men; the younger the age-group, the greater the belief in the paranormal; and, by contrast with astrology, belief in the paranormal is not uncommon among those who have gone on to higher education.
Furthermore, while 81% of French people think that scientific advances lead to progress, 51% of them agree with the idea that science will never be able to explain everything. For many people, the "parasciences" will in the future be accepted as science. There is a desire, on the one hand, to legitimize the supernatural through science and, on the other, to cultivate the charm and mystery of alternative beliefs.
In addition, although belief in the paranormal has increased as Roman Catholicism has declined, the new beliefs are not opposed to religious beliefs, and are even more often found among those who believe in God and an afterlife.
Finally, in hoping for rational explanations, people resort to parascientific beliefs -in an odd twist of modernity and the spread of the ideology of progress. This magical knowledge, far removed from scientific rigour, soothes their fears about death and provides psychological and emotional support. People are most likely to resort to the paranormal where there is anomie, with the concomitant vulnerability, poor social and work relationships, fear of the future and loneliness.
Guy Michelat concludes by saying that, just when "off the peg" collective belief systems are declining and traditional points of reference are disappearing, people are acquiring greater freedom (and with it, greater anxiety), so that they seek personal solutions as a substitute for the major belief systems of the past.
Les communications planétaires instantanées, les voyages et les réseaux ont ouvert des espaces inouïs pour expérimenter et inventer de nouvelles façons de vivre ensemble. Partout cependant, les peuples et les individus désirent préserver certaines de leurs traditions tout en bénéficiant de la modernité. Dans cette seconde édition du Rapport mondial sur la culture, des experts, des statisticiens et des artistes proposent des recommandations visant à inspirer les politiques portant sur : la justice sociale associée à la redistribution et à la ...
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Basé à Bangkok, l'Institut de recherche sur l'Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine (IRASEC) appartient au réseau des centres de recherche du ministère français des Affaires étrangères. Faisant appel à des scientifiques issus de tous horizons, il mène à bien des projets de recherche sur les grandes questions politiques, économiques, sociales et environnementales qui concernent la région. Au cœur de celle-ci, la Thaïlande est particulièrement méconnue. Depuis les années 1950, le pays a pourtant porté une croissance remarquable. Certes, la ...
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Cet ouvrage rassemble et approfondit les réflexions des différents intervenants du premier congrès européen Sciences de l'homme et sociétés, organisé par le mensuel Cultures en mouvement du 10 au 13 mai 2000. Sociologues, philosophes, psychanalystes, historiens mais aussi professionnels de l'action sociale, de la santé et de l'éducation se sont penchés sur les mutations en cours de la société et les perspectives qu'elles dégagent pour les années à venir. Dans un premier temps, l'ouvrage recense ...
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Whereas religion was on the wane in the 1960s and 1970s, for the last 20 or 30 years there has been a great boom in spirituality of all kinds, though admittedly now more vague and individualized. But, according to Yves Lambert, beyond these two developments, secularization then renewal, we are witnessing decline, adaptation, attempts to conserve or to innovate which he tries to clarify here from the viewpoint of a sociologist of religions.
The decline is the product, he argues, of modernity and the values associated with it: the primacy of reason, individualism and diversity. But with "ultramodernity", these same values (reason, individualism, etc.) have become relative, and this has deprived religion of its most formidable rivals but also led the Church to abandon its pretensions to hegemony. Religions have themselves become relativized: they are losing their authority and are developing "belief without belonging", a more personal form of faith.
We are thus witnessing a process of adaptation. "The crisis of rationality encourages the search for ways of expressing affects and subjective experience of the divine [...]; we are moving towards à la carte Christianity" and we are seeing a revival of belief in many forms as well as a coming together of the human and the divine. The principle of authority, of transcendance, is therefore being replaced by a spiritual quest that is more spontaneous and individualized. People no longer expect religion to provide the truth, but rather they want it to offer something in this new quest for fulfilment. Is Christianity falling apart or emerging renewed? asks the author, who concludes that by giving up its totalitarian character, Christianity is acting consistently with its original values.
However, the author recognizes that this process also provokes conservative reactions. Nevertheless, when he looks at the available studies, he notes that the fundamentalists everywhere remain in the minority and the adaptation of Christianity to modernity reveals its amazing capacities for innovation. He highlights the consequent expansion of new forms of religion typical of "ultramodernity": individualization, "autospirituality", pragmatism, mobility...
These four developments are happening but not with equal probability, concludes Lambert, and the "proliferation of religions" could give rise to quite different social changes in different regions.
« Les temps changent et la ville bouge » peut-on lire en couverture de cet ouvrage pratique du CERTU, qui a pour ambition de nous permettre « d'anticiper le grand chambardement des temps dans les villes » et « d'effectuer un transfert de connaissances vers les milieux d'acteurs de la cité ». Car les rythmes de la ville évoluent et se désynchronisent. Le « 8 heures-midi, 14 heures-18 heures » qui organisait la vie personnelle et collective aurait vécu. Le fonctionnement de la cité, des ...
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Every month Futuribles International organizes a round table to discuss major issues facing the modern world with one or more experts well known for their work on futures studies.
The round table with Gilles Kepel, marks the publication of his book entitled Jihad, expansion et déclin de l'islamisme (Paris: Gallimard, 2000). In essence, he explains that in the 1970s, Islamic fundamentalism spread rapidly, but peaked in the 1980s, and for the last ten years it has been in decline.
La construction de l'Europe commerciale et monétaire entraîne-t-elle une convergence des situations économiques et sociales dans les pays membres ? C'est la question que doit se poser tous les trois ans la Commission, et à laquelle ce rapport tente de répondre. Dans l'Union européenne actuelle, les disparités de revenu (produit intérieur brut) par habitants entre États membres et plus particulièrement entre régions restent considérables : le revenu moyen par habitant des 10 % des Européens qui vivent dans les régions ...
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Alfred Blumstein est professeur d'université à Pittsburgh, éminent criminologue dont les recherches ont couvert de nombreux aspects de la criminalité au niveau de la police et de la justice (la mesure du crime, les carrières criminelles, les sanctions, la dissuasion et l'incarcération, les populations dans les prisons, les évolutions démographiques, la violence juvénile, les politiques de lutte contre la drogue). Conçu avec toute une équipe de spécialistes sous sa direction, l'ouvrage The Crime Drop in America, paru ...
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This newly released report: Tourism 2020 Vision - South Asia continues WTO's programme in the field of forecast studies. This first regional volume on South Asia is divided into three parts. Part one examines the development of tourism in South Asia in the first half of the 1990s, analyzing especially the key factors which determined South Asia's prospects. The second part deals with the various determinants governing the forecast to the year 2020, while the third part presents the ...
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In an interview with Futuribles, Marcel Gauchet shows us how open and surprising historical developments can be.
First of all, he says, our world is disenchanted, increasingly leaving matters to human beings to exercise power over themselves, and individual conscience to act as absolute arbiter in ethical and moral decision-making. Democracy and the secularization of religions is making Western culture both more self-confident about its values and more uncertain of how to function, which raises considerable problems. While our society does still have a minimum in the way of shared references, there is constant debate about how to apply them.
Next, he says, the modern times in which we live are marked by a weakening of the social authority of the churches which, conversely, are gaining moral authority. Society no longer expects from them the power to forbid and to coerce individual consciences, but asks instead that they shed light on the questions and dilemmas people are facing. Will they be able to fulfil these expectations better than the secular approach has been able to do?
Finally, he adds, one of the main issues facing the contemporary world is upbringing, what will human beings become? If there is no longer any tradition or superior authority, how should ethical and moral principles be acquired? The family no longer appears to be the transmitter of tradition. Will the school provide training? Or will religion take over this important role?
We are, concludes Marcel Gauchet, facing a situation without precedent in human history.
La notion de capital social, née dans les années 1960 puis popularisée à travers les travaux du sociologue James Coleman, est aujourd'hui à l'honneur. Faisant suite à un premier rapport sur L'Investissement dans le capital humain (1998), l'OCDE s'en empare . Si le capital humain - thème ancien, objet d'importants débats sur sa circonférence exacte - est bien connu des économistes, le capital social constitue une approche innovante pour la mesure des ressources favorisant le développement économique ...
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Quels sont les véritables enjeux de la mondialisation ? Quelles sont les conséquences culturelles de la globalisation ? Comment penser l'ère post-coloniale dans laquelle nous sommes entrés ? Dans cet ouvrage à la croisée de la sociologie, de la politique et de l'ethnographie, Arjun Appadurai tente de répondre à ces questions en se concentrant sur la dimension culturelle de la mondialisation. Anthropologue indo-américain, proche de l'école de pensée américaine baptisée cultural studies, il met au centre de son analyse les ...
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Cet ouvrage est le fruit d'une analyse socio-politique des banlieues françaises. L'auteur porte une attention particulière à deux problématiques particulières : l'éducation et le travail, qui sont des déterminants importants de la condition de vie des individus. A priori, si certain pessimisme se dégage de la réalité banlieusarde, l'auteur n'abonde pas dans une telle perspective. Relevant les différentes initiatives, aussi bien des associations que des individus, leurs actions constituent un espoir pour l'avenir des banlieues.
For the last thirty years or so, as Françoise Champion notes, "alternative" belief systems have gradually gained ground in Western societies. Here she discusses the cultural conditions and shifts that have encouraged the growth of interest in these beliefs, from the example of mysticism and the esoteric.
Since the early 1970s, there has been a counter-culture movement challenging Western cultural values, in particular rationality. This trend has led to a postmodernist individualism associated with a shift away from Christian attitudes and a collapse of institutional religion, to be replaced by a vague religious sense, attracted by all that is mysterious and strange about human beings and the world. This is where believers in mysticism and the esoteric have established themselves, with their fascination with the marvellous and the magical, which gives alternative beliefs their strong position.
Added to this turning away from institutions are the many forms of questioning of the nature of scientific truth and of the possibility of new "paradigms", that have challenged traditional science. Yet the search for a more complex kind of science has so far led nowhere. As a result, it was agreed at the Cordoba conference that a new combination of science and spirituality was required which would make all kinds of non-standard realities possible.
Finally, Françoise Champion explains, people in the modern world give most weight to their own experiences, they enjoy dabbling in vague ideas and deliberately cultivate ambiguity and uncertainty. Usefulness is of greater importance than truth, and what matters most is what a belief offers in terms of well-being, happiness and solutions to personal problems. Today, people think they are more independent, that they have greater freedom to choose among and experiment with long established systems.
Ce livre menant une réflexion anthropologique et psychanalytique sur la condition de vie des clochards s'organise en deux temps. Une première partie est consacrée au témoignage de l'auteur sur la vie des sans domicile fixe (SDF) qu'il a partagée à plusieurs reprises, afin de connaître leurs conditions de vie réelles, ainsi qu'au récit de son métier de psychanalyste au centre hospitalier universitaire de Nanterre pendant 15 ans. Mais l'importance fondamentale de ce livre réside sans ...
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If "modernity" had to be defined as the rise of reason at the expense of religious beliefs (by the great victory of individualism over institutions representing norms that transcend individual conscience), then this phase can now be said to be over. True, the Church is not what it was, but its decline has by no means led to a decline in belief. On the contrary, belief is growing and diversifyng.
Gérard Donnadieu argues that this is because we have reached the phase of "ultramodernity", which is marked, first, by doubts about progress, science, religion as a system and, at the same time, by the growth of beliefs of all sorts; and secondly, by individualism, which therefore means the questioning of all absolute authority and the search instead, everyone for himself, for beliefs that will allow the individual to satisfy his desires and interests.
From this starting point, the author sets out to describe the "new landscape of belief", making use of the metaphor of the market to do so. He shows first that demand, far from diminishing, is fragmenting and becoming more diverse, depending on whether individuals are looking for material, social, moral, psychological or spiritual benefits. At the same time, supply is also becoming more differentiated, the Church has lost its monopoly, and there is a proliferation of extremely varied practices, some more structured than others. In such a competitive situation, the only successful strategies exploit niche opportunities, offering new entrepreneurs (healers, witchdoctors, clairvoyants) new openings.
In the highly competitive market of beliefs, what strategies should the main actors therefore adopt? In conclusion, Gérard Donnadieu outlines three scenarios:
-The "obsolescence" of products and institutions that used to represent the great religions; this would usually tend to generate reactions in the form of either "stiffening identities" or seeking ways of adapting.
-"Visionary transformation", which may be productive in the short term but very risky in the longer term.
-"Segmentation and diversification" which means, just as in industry, developing a much more varied range of products tailored to suit each segment of the clientèle...
In short, Donnadieu concludes, although the market analogy has its limits, it is nevertheless the case that the same laws apply today to the churches if they wish to achieve their goals.
The career of the prosecuting magistrate Eva Joly is both unusual and fascinating. Jean-Jacques Salomon gives a brief sketch that is full of admiration, so enthralled is he by her book Notre affaire à tous [The concern of us all].
Here is an exceptional and outstanding woman, he tells us, and not because she has emerged from the "grandes écoles", but rather from a wide range of enlightening experiences in the twists and turns of the French judicial system. She discusses the nature of corruption in France, the patterns of French legal behaviour and the way they are reported by the media (that is, when they are not hidden) and the resulting threats to democracy.
Eva Joly describes, first, the workings of the legal system on a daily basis: a workload that has doubled or tripled in 30 years, the totally inadequate resources, the idiotic practices, such as having to abandon cases, inquiries and sentencing because of delays. She was later promoted to be a member of the Interministerial Committee on Industrial Restructuring (CIRI), the Republic's "queen of institutions", in the privileged world of the Financial Inspectorate. Finally, she became a prosecuting magistrate specializing in financial matters, and at this point her description becomes even more disturbing.
The picture she paints is of prosecuting magistrates lacking resources, poorly trained, overworked, badly organized, trying to cope with the "lawless world of finance, where the absence of rules is terrifying and where the deals made between the state and public enterprises enrich whole networks, when they do not swell the secret bank accounts of the decision-makers themselves". Her description darkens further here, and is deeply troubling when it relates not to petty fraudsters but to those with power -corruption in the world of business and politics.
Yet Eva Joly is not discouraged, rather the contrary, and in the end she offers us a remarkable lesson in citizenship.
Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.