Société, modes de vie
Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)
La « civilisation du loisir », annoncée par les économistes dans les années 1960, n'est pas encore advenue. Du reste, la notion de « loisir » est très difficile à définir : s'agit-il seulement du « temps libre », c'est-à-dire hors travail et temps physiologique et domestique (selon l'approche de l'Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques par « budget temps ») ? S'agit-il plutôt des activités socialement considérées comme « de loisir » (sport, culture, lecture...) ? Certaines, comme la cuisine ou le bricolage ...
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This piece is more polemical in style than those usually published by Futuribles. But it reflects a major trend that, whatever one feels about it, is striking and undoubtedly deserves our attention.
The trend Bernard Vaudour-Faguet criticizes is the "disneyfication" of society, by which the author also means the "leisure boom" and the proliferation of popular events and entertainments, which he describes and tries to analyse.
In addition to his observations, the author does not hide the fact that he thinks this phenomenon is "the wrong solution to the malaise" of our societies, that it arises from a serious breakdown of values and is a worrying symptom of the "decline of our civilization".
This judgement may be harsh, but nonetheless the phenomenon needs to be highlighted and its motives and consequences should be investigated further.
The remarks published here are extracts from an article that appeared in an issue of the journal Administration et éducation (no. 1, 1999) devoted to "Social divides, educational divides". Not included are Claude Thélot's observations on the development of social and geographical inequalities in the French education system: he argues that, whatever anyone says and even if inequalities can be seen to be moving upwards, the school system has nevertheless helped to make French society more democratic insofar as inequalities in access to education are, overall, less marked now than in the past.
That said, much still needs to be done in order to weaken the mechanisms whereby élites reproduce themselves. From this perspective, Claude Thélot argues that the education system should become more diversified while maintaining a strong national framework, able to curb the inequalities that might arise. He also makes the case for a deliberate policy of positive discrimination, while pointing out the contradictions that must be avoided, the precautions required and the need for transparency about the choices to be made.
Never, it seems, has the progress of science and technique been so ambivalent, giving rise (in particular in the realm of life sciences) to such fears and such hopes.
Discussing here the progress in genetics, Jacques Testart shows first the role played by myths and reality in the progress achieved so far, underlining in particular how the progress in knowledge reveals the depth of our ignorance, or rather, the uncertainty that surrounds many questions. "The attitude of scientific and political authorities reveals a concern to believe and make believe in the control of genetics, a concern which tends towards falsification and irresponsibility" he writes, in order to expose human vanity and the tendency to boast about a knowledge that one does not really have.
Despite that remaining doubt, the author in a second part shows "how we can use genetics". He stresses what advances can be expected, especially in so called predictive medicine, but simultaneously warns about the inherent dangers to genetic selection, the competition towards "molecular enhancement" or worse even, towards "genetic purification" and dangerous "molecular tagging".
It is high time says the author, to "demystify the fabulous promises of genetics and to democratise the field of techno-science". Here lies, no doubt, the greatest challenge for the years to come, in which all of us have a stake and which we can't leave to the secret deliberations of the few genetic initiates alone.
Jean-Jacques Salomon begins here by stating that the sequencing of the human genome, far from being an endeavour for human welfare, is the subject of a bitter competition, in particular, between public and private sector interests, and that its mapping reflects the geography of power...
Thus, the primary question according to him is whether the human genome is part of the common legacy of humanity (and constitutes a public good) or whether it can be, as is already the case today, privately appropriated and therefore sooner or later, become tradable.
The author subsequently stresses that the human genome cannot be understood as being identical and common to all humans, i.e. the genome of universal man, the average genome. On the contrary, quoting Richard Horton, he shows that the "practical interest of the human genome lies not so much in its actual sequence itself as in the genetic variations between individuals".
Finally, opposing all forms of genetic determinism, Jean-Jacques Salomon reminds us that human beings are not made up of genes that totally predetermine them, but that they also are the product of a social and cultural environment and that any theory explaining human behaviour through strictly physical and chemical factors is an aberration.
La problématique générale de cet article est d'esquisser les contenus de ce que pourrait être une politique d'aménagement du territoire qui appréhenderait la dimension temporelle au regard de sa propre dynamique mais aussi de celle de son inscription territoriale. Dans un premier temps, les auteurs synthétisent les questions relatives au temps qui ont émergé des territoires associés à la démarche, qu'il s'agisse de problèmes liés à la flexibilisation des temporalités de travail ou à la diversification ...
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In the article we are reprinting this month under the rubric "Futures of Yesteryear" Marie Bordoy dreams of seeing a Tower of Babel constructed in Paris, emulating the Eiffel Tower.
The unprecedented success of the Eiffel Tower encouraged this woman, who was influential in the Paris building trade in the late 19th century, to envisage adding a magnificent monument -covering 32,000 square meters, 140 meters high, with seven floors and hanging gardens- to the Bois de Boulogne. In this unique edifice, intended to be among the most modern and extraordinary, people would have spoken every language under the sun. It was to be not just a visitor attraction, a place of leisure and entertainment, but also a meeting place for industrialists, manufacturers and inventors from all over the world. Thirty million visitors were expected to travel from the four corners of the Earth to see it.
The plans for this architectural marvel, commissioned from Dominique Minaca, conjured up a magical world of distant peoples, combining utility and pleasure, splendour and originality -but never became a reality.
S'il y a des difficultés de recrutement, celles-ci ne sont pas imputables à une pénurie de main-d'oeuvre mais, me semble-t-il, au hiatus existant entre les revenus escomptés et les salaires proposés, entre les qualifications acquises et celles requises, entre la nature des emplois auxquels les gens aspirent et celle des emplois offerts . Les articles de Xavier Godinot et d'Éric Keslassy que nous publions ce mois-ci m'offrent l'opportunité de revenir sur cette question, plus spécialement celle ...
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Everyone agrees that poverty is dreadful and that its eradication should be a top priority. Yet while knowledge is recognized to be the greatest form of wealth for today's societies, enormous inequalities are developing not just in financial terms but also in access to knowledge.
Xavier Godinot sets out here to show that there are different sorts of knowledge: theoretical knowledge, which is often the most highly valued -and is indeed the basis for a process of segregation- but also knowledge related to living and acting, not to mention spiritual knowledge, which is probably shared more equitably but which is harder to express, recognize and turn to good account.
The fight against poverty cannot be limited to efforts that allow a few to escape from want while others are relegated to the categories of disabled and unemployable. Nor cannot it succeed by relying on pseudo-training courses in which noble "manipulators of symbols" claim to instruct the poor, or by maintaining a two-tier system of training and job placement that merely reinforces inequalities, especially given that the educational system cannot on its own remedy the differences in family background.
Echoing the philosopher Michel Serres, Godinot stresses that "the fight against poverty and social exclusion does indeed involve the acquisition of knowledge [...] but it is above all about recognizing kinds of knowledge that are not valued", especially the kinds of knowledge related to living and acting that poor people have, and which need to be linked with theoretical types of knowledge.
Using as an example the experience gained in the "Quart Monde Université" programme, Godinot shows how it is possible, by bringing together poor people, social workers and academics against a background of mutual respect, for everyone to learn from everyone else and for the whole group to make progress - progress towards greater understanding of the processes whereby people become poor and excluded; progress towards the process of empowering the least fortunate in society.
Xavier Godinot is thus not content with denouncing poverty; he describes here a promising way forward based not on aid but on partnership, a partnership that ultimately enriches everyone involved, from the richest to the poorest.
Ce deuxième rapport annuel sur la situation sociale en Europe fournit des données précieuses destinées à confirmer le rôle stratégique de la politique sociale au sein de l'UE tel qu'il a été défini par le sommet de Lisbonne puis celui de Nice. Il brosse tout d'abord un tableau global des principales tendances observées dans le domaine social (vieillissement, diminution de la taille des ménages, état de la cohésion sociale, conditions de travail et de vie...) au niveau ...
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Cet ouvrage dense se propose de revenir précisément sur ce qu'est la charia, « comment elle apparaît à l'Occident, comment elle est influencée par lui », notamment à l'occasion des événements postérieurs au 11 septembre 2001. Car son auteur, directeur de recherche au CNRS (Centre national de la recherche scientifique) et fondateur et président du Centre de philosophie de la stratégie, grand spécialiste des sociétés musulmanes contemporaines, allègue qu'on ne saurait prétendre expliquer les tensions doctrinales et leurs ...
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Whereas religion was on the wane in the 1960s and 1970s, for the last 20 or 30 years there has been a great boom in spirituality of all kinds, though admittedly now more vague and individualized. But, according to Yves Lambert, beyond these two developments, secularization then renewal, we are witnessing decline, adaptation, attempts to conserve or to innovate which he tries to clarify here from the viewpoint of a sociologist of religions.
The decline is the product, he argues, of modernity and the values associated with it: the primacy of reason, individualism and diversity. But with "ultramodernity", these same values (reason, individualism, etc.) have become relative, and this has deprived religion of its most formidable rivals but also led the Church to abandon its pretensions to hegemony. Religions have themselves become relativized: they are losing their authority and are developing "belief without belonging", a more personal form of faith.
We are thus witnessing a process of adaptation. "The crisis of rationality encourages the search for ways of expressing affects and subjective experience of the divine [...]; we are moving towards à la carte Christianity" and we are seeing a revival of belief in many forms as well as a coming together of the human and the divine. The principle of authority, of transcendance, is therefore being replaced by a spiritual quest that is more spontaneous and individualized. People no longer expect religion to provide the truth, but rather they want it to offer something in this new quest for fulfilment. Is Christianity falling apart or emerging renewed? asks the author, who concludes that by giving up its totalitarian character, Christianity is acting consistently with its original values.
However, the author recognizes that this process also provokes conservative reactions. Nevertheless, when he looks at the available studies, he notes that the fundamentalists everywhere remain in the minority and the adaptation of Christianity to modernity reveals its amazing capacities for innovation. He highlights the consequent expansion of new forms of religion typical of "ultramodernity": individualization, "autospirituality", pragmatism, mobility...
These four developments are happening but not with equal probability, concludes Lambert, and the "proliferation of religions" could give rise to quite different social changes in different regions.
Le tissu social mexicain est fait de multiples fils et déchiré en plusieurs endroits, selon les deux coordinateurs de ce livre. Réussir à renforcer la cohésion sociale est un défi majeur pour ce pays au XXIe siècle. Les 19 auteurs de ce rapport à la section mexicaine du Club de Rome en passent en revue les différents acteurs (partis politiques, forces armées, jeunes, peuples indigènes...), moyens (éducation, politique économique, développement régional et territorial) et obstacles (corruption, trafic de drogue, racisme).
« Les temps changent et la ville bouge » peut-on lire en couverture de cet ouvrage pratique du CERTU, qui a pour ambition de nous permettre « d'anticiper le grand chambardement des temps dans les villes » et « d'effectuer un transfert de connaissances vers les milieux d'acteurs de la cité ». Car les rythmes de la ville évoluent et se désynchronisent. Le « 8 heures-midi, 14 heures-18 heures » qui organisait la vie personnelle et collective aurait vécu. Le fonctionnement de la cité, des ...
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« Ouvrage d'histoire immédiate, L'Année sociale se doit de mettre en évidence les incertitudes du temps, de rechercher ce qui continue sous l'apparence du changement, ce qui se modifie sans que l'œil perçoive immédiatement le flux et le reflux » écrit en introduction René Mouriaux. Ce recueil offre en effet l'opportunité de faire un retour sur l'année écoulée et d'en dégager les tendances significatives. Une première partie est consacrée à la chronique des évènements sociaux ...
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Recent decades, according to Jean-Paul Willaime, have been marked by a growth of evangelical brands of Christianity that lay great stress on the personal religious commitment of each individual. These new religious practices in the Protestant tradition have, among other developments, taken the form of an increase in Evangelical Protestantism and Pentecostalism.
This substantial growth, which is probably the main transnational religious movement of the 20th century, has affected Europe as well as Latin America, Africa and Asia. Jean-Paul Willaime offers some statistics that speak for themselves. These militant branches of Christianity now account for more than 20% of churchgoers in North America (i.e. 20 million Americans) 10% of the population of South America, 25% of South Koreans, not to mention Africa. In Europe, one third of French Protestants are Evangelical Christians and Pentecostalists, as are almost two-thirds of Belgian Protestants, and in Italy there are more Pentecostalists than members of the traditional Protestant church.
The religious identity of these pious and orthodox Christians is that of the "convert" who places the whole of his or her life under God's authority, stressing individual responsibility and divine intervention as immediate and concrete. Through their insistence on moral behaviour, these evangelical churches offer protection and care to vulnerable groups by giving them a new kind of support based on religion, although they also increasingly attract middle class members. They have an economic role (redistribution) and encourage upward social mobility through access to positions of responsibility within the community.
Every month Futuribles International organizes a round table to discuss major issues facing the modern world with one or more experts well known for their work on futures studies.
The round table with Gilles Kepel, marks the publication of his book entitled Jihad, expansion et déclin de l'islamisme (Paris: Gallimard, 2000). In essence, he explains that in the 1970s, Islamic fundamentalism spread rapidly, but peaked in the 1980s, and for the last ten years it has been in decline.
Réunissant 14 études de cas sur différentes villes du monde, dont Montréal, cet ouvrage se veut un document riche pour la comparaison des villes. Les textes sont accompagnés de cartes et tableaux statistiques facilitant la compréhension des espaces étudiés.
Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.