Société, modes de vie
Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)
Over the last two decades there has been a marked rise in alternative belief systems. Guy Michelat analyses this phenomenon, drawing on studies that he has made in collaboration with Daniel Boy, and he offers several observations.
According to his findings, women are more likely to be believers than men; the younger the age-group, the greater the belief in the paranormal; and, by contrast with astrology, belief in the paranormal is not uncommon among those who have gone on to higher education.
Furthermore, while 81% of French people think that scientific advances lead to progress, 51% of them agree with the idea that science will never be able to explain everything. For many people, the "parasciences" will in the future be accepted as science. There is a desire, on the one hand, to legitimize the supernatural through science and, on the other, to cultivate the charm and mystery of alternative beliefs.
In addition, although belief in the paranormal has increased as Roman Catholicism has declined, the new beliefs are not opposed to religious beliefs, and are even more often found among those who believe in God and an afterlife.
Finally, in hoping for rational explanations, people resort to parascientific beliefs -in an odd twist of modernity and the spread of the ideology of progress. This magical knowledge, far removed from scientific rigour, soothes their fears about death and provides psychological and emotional support. People are most likely to resort to the paranormal where there is anomie, with the concomitant vulnerability, poor social and work relationships, fear of the future and loneliness.
Guy Michelat concludes by saying that, just when "off the peg" collective belief systems are declining and traditional points of reference are disappearing, people are acquiring greater freedom (and with it, greater anxiety), so that they seek personal solutions as a substitute for the major belief systems of the past.
C'est à un exercice d'intelligence collective qu'a invité cette première biennale afin de revivifier la culture prospective, en favorisant le dialogue entre tous les acteurs concernés : État, administrations, partenaires sociaux, collectivités territoriales, entreprises, chercheurs, universités... La démarche part des personnes (sondages sur la perception du futur, présentation de l'enquête Valeurs) pour ensuite élargir le débat au cours de tables rondes et d'ateliers sur des initiatives citoyennes permettant d'améliorer la vie quotidienne. Cette approche très ...
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Depuis une trentaine d'années, on assiste, dans les pays anglo-saxons principalement, aux revendications de groupes minoritaires pour la reconnaissance de leur identité culturelle, ainsi que pour l'obtention de droits spécifiques. À bien des égards, ces requêtes paraissent entrer en conflit avec le libéralisme politique : à la particularité qui sous-tend les droits des minorités on opposera l'universalité des droits de l'homme. La Citoyenneté multiculturelle du philosophe Will Kymlicka met précisément en question ce présupposé : le libéralisme politique ...
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If "modernity" had to be defined as the rise of reason at the expense of religious beliefs (by the great victory of individualism over institutions representing norms that transcend individual conscience), then this phase can now be said to be over. True, the Church is not what it was, but its decline has by no means led to a decline in belief. On the contrary, belief is growing and diversifyng.
Gérard Donnadieu argues that this is because we have reached the phase of "ultramodernity", which is marked, first, by doubts about progress, science, religion as a system and, at the same time, by the growth of beliefs of all sorts; and secondly, by individualism, which therefore means the questioning of all absolute authority and the search instead, everyone for himself, for beliefs that will allow the individual to satisfy his desires and interests.
From this starting point, the author sets out to describe the "new landscape of belief", making use of the metaphor of the market to do so. He shows first that demand, far from diminishing, is fragmenting and becoming more diverse, depending on whether individuals are looking for material, social, moral, psychological or spiritual benefits. At the same time, supply is also becoming more differentiated, the Church has lost its monopoly, and there is a proliferation of extremely varied practices, some more structured than others. In such a competitive situation, the only successful strategies exploit niche opportunities, offering new entrepreneurs (healers, witchdoctors, clairvoyants) new openings.
In the highly competitive market of beliefs, what strategies should the main actors therefore adopt? In conclusion, Gérard Donnadieu outlines three scenarios:
-The "obsolescence" of products and institutions that used to represent the great religions; this would usually tend to generate reactions in the form of either "stiffening identities" or seeking ways of adapting.
-"Visionary transformation", which may be productive in the short term but very risky in the longer term.
-"Segmentation and diversification" which means, just as in industry, developing a much more varied range of products tailored to suit each segment of the clientèle...
In short, Donnadieu concludes, although the market analogy has its limits, it is nevertheless the case that the same laws apply today to the churches if they wish to achieve their goals.
This newly released report: Tourism 2020 Vision - Americas continues WTO's programme in the field of forecast studies. This regional volume on Americas is divided into three parts. Part one examines the development of tourism in Americas in the first half of the 1990s, analyzing especially the key factors which determined American prospects. The second part deals with the various determinants governing the forecast to the year 2020, while the third part presents the forecasts themselves taking as well into ...
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Quels sont les véritables enjeux de la mondialisation ? Quelles sont les conséquences culturelles de la globalisation ? Comment penser l'ère post-coloniale dans laquelle nous sommes entrés ? Dans cet ouvrage à la croisée de la sociologie, de la politique et de l'ethnographie, Arjun Appadurai tente de répondre à ces questions en se concentrant sur la dimension culturelle de la mondialisation. Anthropologue indo-américain, proche de l'école de pensée américaine baptisée cultural studies, il met au centre de son analyse les ...
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Cet ouvrage est le fruit d'une analyse socio-politique des banlieues françaises. L'auteur porte une attention particulière à deux problématiques particulières : l'éducation et le travail, qui sont des déterminants importants de la condition de vie des individus. A priori, si certain pessimisme se dégage de la réalité banlieusarde, l'auteur n'abonde pas dans une telle perspective. Relevant les différentes initiatives, aussi bien des associations que des individus, leurs actions constituent un espoir pour l'avenir des banlieues.
For the last thirty years or so, as Françoise Champion notes, "alternative" belief systems have gradually gained ground in Western societies. Here she discusses the cultural conditions and shifts that have encouraged the growth of interest in these beliefs, from the example of mysticism and the esoteric.
Since the early 1970s, there has been a counter-culture movement challenging Western cultural values, in particular rationality. This trend has led to a postmodernist individualism associated with a shift away from Christian attitudes and a collapse of institutional religion, to be replaced by a vague religious sense, attracted by all that is mysterious and strange about human beings and the world. This is where believers in mysticism and the esoteric have established themselves, with their fascination with the marvellous and the magical, which gives alternative beliefs their strong position.
Added to this turning away from institutions are the many forms of questioning of the nature of scientific truth and of the possibility of new "paradigms", that have challenged traditional science. Yet the search for a more complex kind of science has so far led nowhere. As a result, it was agreed at the Cordoba conference that a new combination of science and spirituality was required which would make all kinds of non-standard realities possible.
Finally, Françoise Champion explains, people in the modern world give most weight to their own experiences, they enjoy dabbling in vague ideas and deliberately cultivate ambiguity and uncertainty. Usefulness is of greater importance than truth, and what matters most is what a belief offers in terms of well-being, happiness and solutions to personal problems. Today, people think they are more independent, that they have greater freedom to choose among and experiment with long established systems.
La construction de l'Europe commerciale et monétaire entraîne-t-elle une convergence des situations économiques et sociales dans les pays membres ? C'est la question que doit se poser tous les trois ans la Commission, et à laquelle ce rapport tente de répondre. Dans l'Union européenne actuelle, les disparités de revenu (produit intérieur brut) par habitants entre États membres et plus particulièrement entre régions restent considérables : le revenu moyen par habitant des 10 % des Européens qui vivent dans les régions ...
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This newly released report: Tourism 2020 Vision - South Asia continues WTO's programme in the field of forecast studies. This first regional volume on South Asia is divided into three parts. Part one examines the development of tourism in South Asia in the first half of the 1990s, analyzing especially the key factors which determined South Asia's prospects. The second part deals with the various determinants governing the forecast to the year 2020, while the third part presents the ...
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Réunissant 14 études de cas sur différentes villes du monde, dont Montréal, cet ouvrage se veut un document riche pour la comparaison des villes. Les textes sont accompagnés de cartes et tableaux statistiques facilitant la compréhension des espaces étudiés.
Pierre Bréchon shows here that, despite the existence of some national religious characteristics, international surveys reveal certain trends common to all countries, mainly resulting from generational change and ageing.
The main findings of his study of 11 European countries and the United States are:
- confidence in the churches has declined more than trust in other institutions;
- strength of religious convictions is often seen as a sign of intolerance;
- belief in a single faith (religious exclusiveness) is clearly waning, whereas the idea that all faiths contain an element of truth is becoming more widespread.
The writer highlights the decline of feelings of identity based on religion, albeit with marked variations depending on the religious group and the country concerned. But he shows that, while complete absence of belief is extremely rare, the range of different beliefs is enormous: belief in God, in various kinds of reincarnation, in heaven and hell, in miracles, and so on.
In all countries, belief is less and less linked with belonging to an established religion, and is increasingly an individual matter. But the situation in France seems unusual, in that young French people sometimes appear more likely to believe than their elders.
Ce deuxième rapport annuel sur la situation sociale en Europe fournit des données précieuses destinées à confirmer le rôle stratégique de la politique sociale au sein de l'UE tel qu'il a été défini par le sommet de Lisbonne puis celui de Nice. Il brosse tout d'abord un tableau global des principales tendances observées dans le domaine social (vieillissement, diminution de la taille des ménages, état de la cohésion sociale, conditions de travail et de vie...) au niveau ...
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Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.