Société, modes de vie
Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)
For more than 30 years Pierre Rosanvallon, a historian by training, has played his part in "the life of ideas" in France (La vie des idées is, in fact, the name of the website, providing analysis and information on current intellectual debates, which he directs). He has particularly dedicated his efforts in the last 15 years to the history and development of democratic institutions. Two books, published originally in 2006 and 2008 in France, afford us an insight into the changes currently affecting democracy. The first is Counter-Democracy: Politics in an Age of Distrust (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), which analyses the emergence of manifestations of the distrust of democracy that ultimately play their part, by the way they express themselves and the questions they raise, in redefining democratic life. The second is the as yet untranslated La Légitimité démocratique (Paris: Seuil, 2008), in which Pierre Rosanvallon studies three imperatives that have gradually come to be seen as binding upon representatives of democratic government: impartiality, "reflexivity" (which aims to ensure that the common good is taken into account) and "proximity" (which consists in paying attention to all particularities). In this article, Julien Damon analyses these two works on the changes in democracy and in the legitimacy of the bodies in which it resides.
lors que les ventes d'appareils électriques grand public ne cessent d'augmenter et que l'hiver 2008-2009 se révèle particulièrement rude, est-il encore possible de sensibiliser les ménages à leur consommation électrique ?
La notion de " réseau social " a été inventée en 1954 par le sociologue John Barnes pour caractériser un ensemble d'individus reliés entre eux par des liens particuliers créés lors d'interactions sociales. Autrement dit, les réseaux sociaux désignent le fait que des individus sont reliés entre eux par des liens plus ou moins forts créés lors d'interactions sociales. L'intérêt que la sociologie porte à cette question n'est pas récent, et l'idée que tout individu fait ...
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Christian Gatard est directeur de Gat ard et associés, un institut d’études et de recherches sur la consommation, et passionné de prospective. Dans cet ouvrage, il propose d’imaginer comment pourraient évoluer les sociétés et les modes de vie (surtout occidentaux) d’après les discours des prospectivistes et les enquêtes menées auprès des consommateurs. Il en résulte un foisonnement d’idées, relevant parfois plus de la science-fiction que de la prospective, mais souvent instructives. Les sociétés occidentales, constate l ...
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Depuis 1990, la consommation d?électricité des ménages augmente en moyenne de 3,4 % par an dans le monde. Or, si des efforts pour diminuer la consommation électrique de ces appareils peuvent paraître inutiles à l?échelle individuelle, ils pourraient pourtant se révéler cruciaux à l?avenir. Selon l?AIE, recourir dès aujourd?hui aux technologies les plus sobres en énergie pourrait permettre de réduire la consommation mondiale d?électricité des particuliers jusqu?à 40 % à l?horizon 2030 par ...
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Le tourisme est souvent présenté comme l’un des secteurs les moins bien préparés aux futurs défis mondiaux tels que la croissance démographique, le réchauffement climatique ou encore l’accès à certaines ressources naturelles (eau potable, pétrole…). Afin d’imaginer à quoi pourrait ressembler le tourisme en Grande-Bretagne et dans le monde en 2023, le Forum for the Future a interrogé une centaine d’experts et de professionnels du secteur. Les auteurs identifient trois domaines dans lesquels ils estiment qu ...
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The financial crisis has been in the headlines for some months now, but there is another crisis that regularly fills column inches without it being entirely clear what it relates to or whether it genuinely exists. This is the crisis in social relations. In this article, Pierre-Yves Cusset asks the question "are social relations in France in crisis?" Do we still have shared values, national solidarity etc.? And if so, what do these things consist in?
He begins by presenting the case that there is a crisis in social relations: the breakdown of the family unit, the increasing brittleness of family relationships, a questioning of the role of the public services, decreased participation in elections, increased levels of crime, problems of integration etc. He then shows that some of these developments, which, though they render social relations more brittle, are the "down-side" to new freedoms that extend the process of individualization (sexual tolerance, increased choice of relationships etc.). He emphasizes, in this way, that the fragility of private social relationships may be compensated for by their greater quantity and even perhaps their higher quality. Lastly, he shows that it is the preservation of the civil bond (which links everyone to society as a whole) that is trickiest, given recent developments, both where a sense of national belonging/identity and civility/civic-mindedness are concerned. And it is very much this civil bond which lies at the heart, in present-day France, of the challenge of constituting a society.
In a context of high food price rises since 2007, trends in the eating patterns of individuals are an essential factor that can help us to anticipate changes in the agricultural and agrifood markets, if not, indeed, suggest a number of possible courses of action.
In 2006, the "Foresight Group" of the Normandy Chambers of Agriculture carried out an in-depth study of the eating patterns of French people to 2020, the aim of which was to assess the resulting development of agricultural demand. An original feature of this study was the fact that it adopted a viewpoint "from the field" rather than "from the plate". In other words, its reasoning is based on the global impact on agricultural raw materials, whatever the form taken by the produce consumed (unprocessed or transformed by the agrifood industry) or its place of consumption.
After a presentation of the key variables (economic growth, consumer income, public health policies etc.), among which income plays a crucial role, four possible scenarios were proposed. These were a scenario based on current trends, which projects forward the situation we see today; a "Nordic" scenario, based on a better economic situation, more egalitarian income-distribution and active health/nutrition policies; a scenario tending toward the U.S. model and, lastly, a crisis scenario against a background of economic stagnation and increased inequality. Each of these scenarios specifies the impact that would ensue in terms of agricultural demand for each broad area of produce. The usefulness of such a study of eating patterns is more than ever confirmed by recent developments, which are tending to tilt the balance, for the moment, towards the crisis scenario.
The Mediterranean diet has enjoyed a high reputation over many years, both for its nutritional quality and its health benefits. What does it consist in, how has it developed and how is it currently evolving? In this article, Martine Padilla demonstrates the main characteristics of this diet and shows how eating patterns are developing in the various regions of the Mediterranean Basin, chiefly as a result of societal changes and modernization. She also analyses the impacts of these changes with regard to food security, both quantitative and qualitative.
Then, basing herself on a foresight exercise on quantitative and qualitative food security in the Mediterranean region to the year 2020, she presents four possible future scenarios. These are: "Food Autism", "The Market and Modernity at All Costs", "A Harmonious Combination of the Local and the International," and "Taking Responsibility for Food: Redistribution and Health". Lastly, she offers a series of recommendations designed to promote the desired food security, including, most notably, a concerted, all-embracing, consumer-centred policy, respect for traditional produce, and the mobilization of actors at all levels of the supply chain. These are lines of action that can all contribute to the - environmental and cultural - sustainability of the Mediterranean region.
Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.