Société, modes de vie
Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)
En comparaison internationale, la France a un faible taux d'emploi, et ceci recouvre essentiellement un « déficit » d'emplois dans les services. En effet, au cours des dernières décennies, la baisse de l'emploi industriel n'a pas été plus marquée en France que chez ses partenaires ; en revanche, la création d'emploi dans les services a été plus limitée Par ailleurs, l'exemple américain montre que l'expansion de certains services peut s'accompagner de gains de productivité élevés ...
(195 more words)
For some time the topic of cloning has been a matter of passionate debate, frequently at the forefront of media attention, stirring up not only those engaged in research in biotechnologies, but also (and increasingly) philosophers, sociologists, psychiatrists and the like. The reason is that the ethical implications are enormous. Grégory Bénichou, a professor of ethics, provides a glimpse of these issues that is disturbing, to say the least, as he shows how the argument favouring scientific progress can sometimes conceal the temptations of eugenics.
He argues that society is in the throes of developing a new concept: the "disposable human being". Just as IQ scores were established as a way of measuring the intellectual capacities of individuals, a genetic quotient is currently being devised as an indicator of what constitutes a more or less normal individual -the risk being that parents will choose their baby in vitro according to his or her score. Other aberrations of the same type already exist, according to Bénichou, referring to firms that sell "high quality" sperm that is supposed to help ensure the birth of "better" offspring, or businesses that are introducing genetic assessments as part of their hiring process.
In addition to the social (sometimes geopolitical) inequalities inherent in practices such as these, Bénichou shows that the argument that therapeutic cloning (in which "clones without a brain" are made in order to build up an organ bank of spare parts), which is considered to be more "ethical" than reproductive cloning, is a false one. Other techniques, which are less in the media spotlight but which are potentially just as efficient, already exist to "treat people without debasing human life".
The ultimate question he raises is: "Is human cloning really a step forward for humanity?" Does it not threaten to undermine permanently the principles of freedom and equality, and to establish different grades of human being? According to G. Bénichou, in such circumstances, it is not a matter of defending progress, but of justifying it.
Le 1er mai 2004, 10 nouveaux pays sont entrés dans l'Union européenne (UE). Alors que l'intégration croissante des économies est et ouest-européennes, déjà bien avancée, se traduisait par de fortes hausses du commerce extérieur et des investissements directs, plusieurs analyses de l'impact de l'adhésion de ces pays à l'UE ont été réalisées ces dernières années. Mais la plupart de celles-ci se limitent à passer en revue les aspects macroéconomiques et institutionnels de l'élargissement, tels ...
(235 more words)
Chaque année, la FAO dresse un bilan des progrès accomplis et des revers subis dans la poursuite de l'objectif fixé par 185 nations et l'Union européenne au sommet mondial de l'alimentation en 1996 : réduire de moitié, d'ici 2015, le nombre de personnes souffrant de la faim dans le monde. La dernière édition du SOFI (State of Food Insecurity) fait état de quelque 852 millions de personnes souffrant de malnutrition chronique dans le monde aujourd'hui. Plus ...
(351 more words)
Depuis le milieu du XXe siècle, les transformations des modes d'alimentation ont été importantes, favorisées par des avancées scientifiques et technologiques dans le domaine de la qualité et de la sécurité des aliments. Le rapport étudie les importants enjeux de société qui se rapportent à l'alimentation, sa sécurité dans le cadre de la mondialisation, le maintien de l'industrie alimentaire française dans la concurrence mondiale. Il s'interroge sur les espérances données par la nutrition et les problèmes ...
(43 more words)
Ce texte de Robin Gunston, directeur du New Zealand Futures Trust, a été présenté à la conférence annuelle de la World Future Society. Après avoir fait un rappel historique de la façon dont le sport est passé de l'amateurisme au professionnalisme, l'auteur passe en revue quelques tendances affectant ce domaine : - L'importance croissante de l'aspect show-business, renforcé par le rôle de la télévision (il y a jusqu'à 27 chaînes câblées consacrées aux sports aux États-Unis). - La ...
(385 more words)
As France prepares to mark the centenary of the separation of Church and State in 2005, the current concerns about the presence of religious symbols in state schools (above all, headscarves worn by Muslim girls) show that the debate is far from over. Above and beyond the issue of religion in schools, the question touches the more general problem of attitudes to Islam in French society. How can we prevent secularism, which is a core value of the French education system, from leading to the exclusion of some pupils? And what can be done so that the French version of Islam distinguishes the temporal from the spiritual?
In this debate it is hard to find more relevant reading matter than A Letter Concerning Toleration published by John Locke in 1689. Although there are plenty of texts about tolerance dating from the 17th century (Spinoza, Bayle), Locke's Letter has become the best known reference, because it is so clear and concise. Starting from a conception of the freedom of judgement essential for all human beings, Locke defines the strict limits on the rights of the two institutions (Church and State), the one concerned with man and his worldly goods, the other with matters of faith and the eternal salvation of his soul.
According to Locke, the right to toleration has nothing to do with religious convictions; instead, it is essentially a practical political issue relating to the conduct of social relations. He makes a radical distinction between politics and religion: anyone who confuses two spheres that are so different in their origins, their ends and their concerns is muddling two things that are diametrical opposites, Heaven and Earth. Tolerance in Locke's view nevertheless involves restrictions, above all with regard to convictions that seek to impinge upon the State's sphere: Roman Catholicism because it is ruled from abroad, atheism because he sees it as basically unsuited to maintaining the moral ties essential to political life. Having had some experience himself of the business of the State, Locke was totally uncompromising about the boundary between public law and divine law: his obsession as a champion of liberalism (in the sense of respect for individual liberties) was with the social disorders arising from arbitrary actions by magistrates or from religious fanaticism or, worse still, the combination of the two.
In the midst of the "war against terrorism" launched by the US government, the editor of Foreign Policy rightly reminds us that there are other "wars", not waged by one state against another; these are sometimes even more destructive and governments have great difficulty in gaining the upper hand. These wars are made much worse by certain new features of globalisation and, according to Moisés Naím, they are likely to be long-lasting and to become even more serious if governments do not realize that these problems call for major strategic reforms.
The wars in question are against drug-trafficking, the illegal arms trade, breaches of intellectual property, trafficking of human beings and money-laundering.
These problems have no regard for geography or sovereignty, and they bring governments into conflict with networks based solely on market forces. In many ways, Naím argues, these struggles are structuring the world as much as the tensions between nation-states did in the past. In addition, they raise questions about the dominant ideas and institutions of nation-states and they highlight the damaging side-effects of untrammelled market forces.
John Robinson has therefore analysed the daily routine of Americans and the changes that have occurred in their lives in recent decades. He then uses this information to compare France and the United States.
The trends in how time is divided between work, the family and leisure pursuits has changed little overall since the 1960s, and turn out to be remarkably similar in the two countries. Nevertheless certain changes can be observed: more women in paid work, less time spent on household tasks and caring for the family, men taking on a greater share of household tasks and a slight fall in the amount of time spent on personal care (washing, dressing, etc.). The greater leisure time available tends to be spent watching television and keeping fit.
While French and American trends usually run in parallel, they diverge in certain areas, in particular the non-productive aspects of life (meals, socializing, group activities) that increase the social capital of daily life. Unlike the Americans, the French prefer to spend their leisure time with other people even though, paradoxically, they spend less time with their children when they get older.
Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.