Société, modes de vie

Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)

Bibliography

Société, modes de vie - Territoires, réseaux

Ségrégation urbaine et intégration sociale

Le rapport étudie le phénomène de ségrégation urbaine, obstacle à l'intégration sociale dans de nombreux domaines tels que le travail, l'école, le logement et les équipements collectifs. Les auteurs reviennent en ce sens sur les mécanismes qui alimentent le processus de divergence urbaine. La stratification de l'espace reproduit la stratification sociale, mais elle se transforme en ségrégation urbaine sous l'effet du chômage de masse persistant et agit comme un multiplicateur d'hystérésis (un phénomène peut persister ...

(103 more words)

Bibliography

Société, modes de vie

The Future of Sport in « Thinking Creatively in Turbulent Times »

Ce texte de Robin Gunston, directeur du New Zealand Futures Trust, a été présenté à la conférence annuelle de la World Future Society. Après avoir fait un rappel historique de la façon dont le sport est passé de l'amateurisme au professionnalisme, l'auteur passe en revue quelques tendances affectant ce domaine : - L'importance croissante de l'aspect show-business, renforcé par le rôle de la télévision (il y a jusqu'à 27 chaînes câblées consacrées aux sports aux États-Unis). - La ...

(385 more words)

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

L’invention de l’homme jetable

For some time the topic of cloning has been a matter of passionate debate, frequently at the forefront of media attention, stirring up not only those engaged in research in biotechnologies, but also (and increasingly) philosophers, sociologists, psychiatrists and the like. The reason is that the ethical implications are enormous. Grégory Bénichou, a professor of ethics, provides a glimpse of these issues that is disturbing, to say the least, as he shows how the argument favouring scientific progress can sometimes conceal the temptations of eugenics.
He argues that society is in the throes of developing a new concept: the "disposable human being". Just as IQ scores were established as a way of measuring the intellectual capacities of individuals, a genetic quotient is currently being devised as an indicator of what constitutes a more or less normal individual -the risk being that parents will choose their baby in vitro according to his or her score. Other aberrations of the same type already exist, according to Bénichou, referring to firms that sell "high quality" sperm that is supposed to help ensure the birth of "better" offspring, or businesses that are introducing genetic assessments as part of their hiring process.
In addition to the social (sometimes geopolitical) inequalities inherent in practices such as these, Bénichou shows that the argument that therapeutic cloning (in which "clones without a brain" are made in order to build up an organ bank of spare parts), which is considered to be more "ethical" than reproductive cloning, is a false one. Other techniques, which are less in the media spotlight but which are potentially just as efficient, already exist to "treat people without debasing human life".
The ultimate question he raises is: "Is human cloning really a step forward for humanity?" Does it not threaten to undermine permanently the principles of freedom and equality, and to establish different grades of human being? According to G. Bénichou, in such circumstances, it is not a matter of defending progress, but of justifying it.

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Cyber-consommation : les nouvelles tendances

L'Observatoire de la cyberconsommation (Cyberconso), créé en septembre 2003 par le Forum des droits sur l'Internet, publie son premier rapport sur les pratiques des consommateurs et des professionnels de la vente à distance au regard du cadre juridique applicable. De septembre 2003 à mars 2004, l'Observatoire a collecté les témoignages de près de 400 internautes et procédé à l'audition de nombreux acteurs du commerce électronique : marchands, comparateurs de prix, intermédiaires techniques et représentants des consommateurs. La ...

(50 more words)

Bibliography

Société, modes de vie

Phénomènes émergents liés aux drogues en 2003 : cinquième rapport national du dispositif TREND

Le dispositif TREND (Tendances récentes et nouvelles drogues) vise à fournir de façon précoce des informations sur les usages et les usagers de drogues illicites, et sur les phénomènes émergents qui leur sont liés. Il s'appuie sur un réseau national de 12 sites d'observation, un dispositif d'observation des drogues de synthèse et des partenariats avec des organismes publics. Ce cinquième rapport est le fruit des observations de terrain recueillies par plus de 500 professionnels et citoyens au ...

(66 more words)

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Horizons2020. A Thought-provoking Look at the Future

À quoi ressemblera la vie quotidienne en Europe dans 20 ans ? Quelles technologies seront devenues nécessaires ? Quels seront les choix de société ? Pour répondre à ces questions, Siemens a commandé à TNS Infratest une étude sur les changements susceptibles d'affecter les domaines politique, économique, sociétal, environnemental et technologique ces 15 prochaines années. Dans la première étape du projet « Horizons2020 », 200 variables descriptibles (quantitatives et qualitatives) ont été choisies sur l'ensemble de ces cinq domaines. Une centaine d'experts ...

(588 more words)

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

ICT and Social Capital in the Knowledge Society

Le rapport décrit un projet de recherche sur le lien entre les technologies de l'information et la communication (TIC) et le capital social. Partant de trois documents de travail traitant de différents aspects de cette relation, des experts se sont réunis à Séville en novembre 2003. Ce rapport rassemble ces documents et une synthèse de la discussion. Le premier document, ICTs, Civil Society and Global / Local Trends in Civic Participation, traite des aspects de la cohésion sociale et de ...

(303 more words)

Futurs d'antan

Entreprises, travail - Société, modes de vie

Lettre sur la tolérance

As France prepares to mark the centenary of the separation of Church and State in 2005, the current concerns about the presence of religious symbols in state schools (above all, headscarves worn by Muslim girls) show that the debate is far from over. Above and beyond the issue of religion in schools, the question touches the more general problem of attitudes to Islam in French society. How can we prevent secularism, which is a core value of the French education system, from leading to the exclusion of some pupils? And what can be done so that the French version of Islam distinguishes the temporal from the spiritual?
In this debate it is hard to find more relevant reading matter than A Letter Concerning Toleration published by John Locke in 1689. Although there are plenty of texts about tolerance dating from the 17th century (Spinoza, Bayle), Locke's Letter has become the best known reference, because it is so clear and concise. Starting from a conception of the freedom of judgement essential for all human beings, Locke defines the strict limits on the rights of the two institutions (Church and State), the one concerned with man and his worldly goods, the other with matters of faith and the eternal salvation of his soul.
According to Locke, the right to toleration has nothing to do with religious convictions; instead, it is essentially a practical political issue relating to the conduct of social relations. He makes a radical distinction between politics and religion: anyone who confuses two spheres that are so different in their origins, their ends and their concerns is muddling two things that are diametrical opposites, Heaven and Earth. Tolerance in Locke's view nevertheless involves restrictions, above all with regard to convictions that seek to impinge upon the State's sphere: Roman Catholicism because it is ruled from abroad, atheism because he sees it as basically unsuited to maintaining the moral ties essential to political life. Having had some experience himself of the business of the State, Locke was totally uncompromising about the boundary between public law and divine law: his obsession as a champion of liberalism (in the sense of respect for individual liberties) was with the social disorders arising from arbitrary actions by magistrates or from religious fanaticism or, worse still, the combination of the two.

Revue

Économie, emploi - Population - Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Les cinq guerres de la mondialisation

In the midst of the "war against terrorism" launched by the US government, the editor of Foreign Policy rightly reminds us that there are other "wars", not waged by one state against another; these are sometimes even more destructive and governments have great difficulty in gaining the upper hand. These wars are made much worse by certain new features of globalisation and, according to Moisés Naím, they are likely to be long-lasting and to become even more serious if governments do not realize that these problems call for major strategic reforms.
The wars in question are against drug-trafficking, the illegal arms trade, breaches of intellectual property, trafficking of human beings and money-laundering.
These problems have no regard for geography or sovereignty, and they bring governments into conflict with networks based solely on market forces. In many ways, Naím argues, these struggles are structuring the world as much as the tensions between nation-states did in the past. In addition, they raise questions about the dominant ideas and institutions of nation-states and they highlight the damaging side-effects of untrammelled market forces.

Chapitre Société, modes de vie

Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.