Société, modes de vie

Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)

Note de veille

Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement - Société, modes de vie

Avancées et limites de la transition énergétique post-Fukushima au Japon

En septembre 2013, le Japon a annoncé la fermeture de la dernière centrale nucléaire du pays encore en fonctionnement 1. Depuis l’accident de la centrale de Fukushima, en mars 2011, les 50 réacteurs japonais ont en effet été successivement mis à l’arrêt pour des raisons de maintenance et / ou de sécurité, mais aussi pour répondre à l’inquiétude de l’opinion publique, qui veut désormais se passer du nucléaire. Alors que le Japon prévoyait, en 2011, d’assurer ...

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Note de veille

Société, modes de vie

Une loterie pour éviter les embouteillages

En 2012, les conducteurs américains ont passé en moyenne 38 heures dans les embouteillages, selon l’INRIX, un service de collecte de données routières basé aux États-Unis. Pour les villes les plus encombrées, la moyenne est de 42 heures. À Washington, la ville américaine la plus concernée par les embouteillages, les automobilistes sont restés coincés dans les bouchons en moyenne pendant 67 heures (plus de deux jours !) en 2012 [1]. Le coût de ces embouteillages est élevé, puisqu’il est ...

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Note de veille

Économie, emploi - Société, modes de vie

Augmentation du surendettement des plus de 65 ans

En 2013, la banque de France a publié les résultats de son enquête typologique portant sur le profil des personnes surendettées [1] dans l’Hexagone : l’étude porte sur l’année 2011, les études précédentes concernaient les années 2001, 2004, 2007 et 2010. Si le nombre de personnes surendettées reste stable en 2011 (260 000 [2]), on constate une augmentation de la part des plus de 65 ans dans les dossiers de surendettement : alors qu’en 2001, 4,3 % des ...

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Analyse prospective

Société, modes de vie

La société française en 2013

L’étude « Conditions de vie et aspirations des Français », menée chaque année, depuis la fin de la décennie 1970, par le CRÉDOC (Centre de recherche pour l’étude et l’observation des conditions de vie), est une importante source de données et d’analyses pour saisir les dynamiques de la société française [1]. Cette enquête est barométrique car elle intègre chaque année une batterie de questions qui sont systématiquement répétées, ce qui permet de souligner des évolutions ou des permanences ...

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Revue

Société, modes de vie

The Metamorphoses of the Family: A Retro-prospective Analysis and Study of Trends and Prospects in France

On 17 May 2013 a law was passed in France making marriage available to same-sex couples. This is the famous “marriage for all”, which brought the French people committed to the most traditional family values out onto the streets in protest. For all that, the family of the 2010s is, to judge by the profound changes it has undergone in recent decades, very different from the 1960s family. And this legislative change chimes with the continuing drift of these developments, driven by an increased degree of individualization within societies, as confirmed by the last issue of Futuribles on trends in European values (no. 395).

As Julien Damon shows here, marriage as an institution has lost a lot of ground in France to cohabitation and civil partnerships. Divorce and separation have become commonplace and a majority of children are now born outside wedlock. This reflects a number of social revolutions punctuating the latter half of the 20th century (radical medical and legal changes, priority accorded to love and happiness). One consequence among many has been a noteworthy diversification of family models (composite families, split custody of children, single-parent families). These upheavals, affecting families, couples and offspring alike, have been accompanied by shifts in the law towards greater sexual equality, the recognition of new forms of conjugal life and concern for the interests of the child, this latter having become the linchpin of family relations.

Yet, can these developments continue at the same pace in the coming decades? As Julien Damon sees it, it is possible we have reached a kind of plateau in the transformations of the family, without any firm choice being made between the three scenarios that might be envisaged (the definitive break-up of the family, stabilization, or a return to earlier forms), but these transformations, at whatever speed they progress, will probably continue to be reflected in law and will, ultimately, run up against another range of family-related issues: the dependency of ageing family members.

Note de veille

Société, modes de vie

L’isolement relationnel : une donnée sociale à suivre

Parue en juin, l’édition 2013 du baromètre des solitudes en France, réalisé par la Fondation de France, est sans appel : selon cette étude, produite trois fois depuis 2010, l’isolement relationnel progresse dans le pays. Cette tendance marque les principaux réseaux d’une manière ou d’une autre : les relations entretenues avec les amis (c’est-à-dire tout simplement se voir) sont moins fréquentes, les échanges avec les voisins sont plus souvent distants qu’en 2010, ou même inexistants, les ...

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Bibliography

Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement - Société, modes de vie

Waste. Global gâchis

Tristram Stuart est « tombé » dans l’écologie quand il était petit, comme il l’explique au début cet ouvrage, qui dénonce, chiffres et témoignages à l’appui, le fléau du gaspillage alimentaire. Comme le révèle son enquête, menée aussi bien en Grande-Bretagne et aux États-Unis que dans des pays pauvres, tous les acteurs de la chaîne agroalimentaire génèrent du gaspillage, du producteur au consommateur, en passant par le distributeur, la petite épicerie, l’artisan boulanger et le restaurant de quartier ...

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Note de veille

Société, modes de vie

L’enjeu de la dénutrition des seniors

La dénutrition chez les personnes âgées est devenue un problème majeur de santé publique. La forte augmentation dans les années à venir de la part des seniors en France pourrait aggraver les conséquences sociales et économiques de ce phénomène. Des solutions sont peu à peu mises en place. Parmi celles-ci, le développement d’une alimentation spécifique et durable, alliant richesse nutritionnelle, goût et plaisir, semble déjà pertinent, comme l’illustre l’exemple du « pain senior ». D’ores et déjà inscrit ...

(1136 more words)

Note de veille

Société, modes de vie

Évolution des dépenses contraintes sur un demi-siècle

Dans tous les débats sur la consommation et le pouvoir d’achat, le thème des dépenses dites « contraintes », « pré-engagées » ou « non arbitrables » est maintenant récurrent. Les comptes de la nation, et les définitions INSEE (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), autorisent un peu de clarté sur ce sujet important. Évolution des dépenses « contraintes » des ménages français (en %) Le revenu disponible brut des ménages est le revenu à leur disposition pour consommer et épargner. Il comprend l’addition ...

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Note de veille

Entreprises, travail - Société, modes de vie

Les enjeux de la location de logements entre particuliers

Depuis le début de la crise économique, les évolutions des comportements des consommateurs font l’objet d’une attention croissante. En particulier, l’essor de la consommation collaborative fait couler beaucoup d’encre. Ce concept désigne le fait « de prêter, louer, donner, échanger des objets via les technologies et les communautés de pairs » [1]. Parmi ces pratiques, celles liées au logement ont connu un essor très rapide : les particuliers peuvent désormais échanger leur logement pendant les vacances, louer leur garage ...

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Document étude

Économie, emploi - Société, modes de vie

La solidarité à l’épreuve du vieillissement démographique

Le gouvernement français a affirmé sa volonté de procéder en 2013 à une nouvelle réforme des retraites. Une commission d’experts, placée sous la présidence de Yannick Moreau, a rendu son rapport le 14 juin. Une conférence sociale, doit se tenir les 20 et 21 juin avec les partenaires sociaux, avec entre autres objets principaux, celui de procéder à une concertation préalable au projet de loi qui devrait être soumis au Parlement en septembre. La raison d’être de cette ...

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Note de veille

Population - Société, modes de vie

Politique familiale : le virage vers la petite enfance

Depuis les premières lois d’assistance de la fin du XIXe siècle, jusqu’à l’ensemble des mécanismes socio-fiscaux contemporains, en passant par la mise en place d’une branche « Famille » de la Sécurité sociale après guerre, le périmètre de la politique familiale n’a fait que s’étendre. Le plus important virage de la politique familiale n’est pas le plus commenté. On parle très souvent du passage d’une politique familiale vers une politique sociale, avec les mises ...

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Note de veille

Société, modes de vie

Le logement aussi devient collaboratif

Alors que la maison individuelle non mitoyenne a longtemps représenté un idéal, le concept de l’habitat partagé, né en Europe du Nord dans les années 1960, suscite depuis quelques années un regain d’intérêt [1]. Ce mode d’habiter répond en effet à l’émergence de certaines préoccupations sociales et environnementales. Un habitat partagé peut naître de la volonté de plusieurs ménages, parfois aidés par une association ou une collectivité, qui se regroupent en société coopérative pour acquérir un ...

(810 more words)

Analyse prospective

Société, modes de vie

Vers un déclin du lien social ?

La question du lien social et de l’éventualité de son déclin est un enjeu important pour l’observation sociologique aussi bien que pour le gouvernement des sociétés. Les tendances observées dans ce domaine apparaissent souvent contradictoires : un détour par les travaux de recherche consacrés à cette question est nécessaire. Il en ressort un paysage social marqué par l’existence d’un réel problème d’isolement social, comme plusieurs indicateurs le montrent. La tendance n’est cependant pas à une ...

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Revue

Institutions - Société, modes de vie

Europeans’ Political Values: Right-wing versus Left-wing Values

This article, which draws on the Values studies regularly conducted in Europe, aims to compare Europeans’ political values through their positioning on a Left-Right scale, and their development between 1990 and 2008, and also to analyse the underlying values that go furthest to explaining this positioning. Raul Magni Berton begins by presenting the Left/Right split in the various countries surveyed, as it emerges from the self-positioning of individuals (or their refusal to position themselves), highlighting, among other things, the relative stability of this split in the various countries, the importance it retains in Western Europe and a mild “leftward” trend in Europe.

The author then analyses 11 value conflicts that are likely to explain the political positioning of individuals: attitude to equality, moral progressivism/conservatism, state/market, attitude to law-and-order, nationalism/universalism, solidarity/individualism, attitude to work, degree of materialism, authoritarianism/criticism, attitude to religion, and sexism/sexual equality. Drawing on the observed correlations between these values and the political positioning of individuals, Raul Magni Berton shows, among other things, that religious values are less and less predictive of political standpoints in Western Europe, whereas those relating to egalitarianism, the state and law-and-order play an increasing role. On the other hand, very few significant correlations can be seen in Eastern Europe, which shows the major importance of the –both political and historical– context, and somewhat undermines the idea that the notions of Left and Right are universal in character. This is also confirmed by the country-by-country analysis of differences proposed at the end of the article.

Revue

Société, modes de vie

The Contribution of the Values Study: A Rich Tradition of Research for Understanding Social Change

It is almost 30 years now since the European Values Studies (EVS) were launched. They were carried out in 14 European countries at first (in 1981), then gradually extended to the whole of the continent, as broadly conceived (47 countries in 2008). By means of precise questionnaires relating to all fields of private and social life –many of the surveys being repeated identically over the four waves of studies so far completed, with others regularly updated to cover social developments that were difficult to anticipate 30 years ago– we have a great wealth of material at our disposal, enabling us to gauge social change in the various European countries and compare by broad cultural areas the trends at work in terms of values and behaviour. From the second wave of studies onwards, Futuribles provided a sounding board for the valuable analyses that were to be drawn from them (special issue of July-August 1995) and continued with the venture after the third wave (July-August 2002 issue). The fourth wave of studies begun in 2008 presents an opportunity once again to open the columns of our journal to the researchers who have delved into the analysis of the latest findings and the long-term comparisons to be made from them, brilliantly coordinated by Pierre Bréchon who, in this introductory article, demonstrates the considerable contribution made by the Values studies to the understanding of developments within European societies.

Revue

Géopolitique - Société, modes de vie

Tolerance and Xenophobia in Europe : Are “Cultural Areas” still Relevant?

Several countries, having been faced for over five years with a serious economic crisis that has grave social consequences, have seen the growth of populist political parties with, in many cases, xenophobic overtones. But do these political expressions echo the trends in Europeans’ values and behaviour with regard to tolerance and xenophobia? It seems not, at least up to 2008, the date of the last survey of European values, as analysed here by Guillaume Roux.

Roux begins by drawing up a geographical chart of tolerance in Europe: the values of tolerance are everywhere in the majority, but the levels are highest in Northern Europe and lowest in Southern Europe and in the former Soviet bloc countries, with Western Europe presenting a more mixed profile. Over the last two decades, these seem to be durable differences, even though, in general, the values of tolerance have progressed in many countries (doubtless in connection with increased individualization) and the homogeneity of Western Europe is a little diminished by comparison with 1990.

Roux goes on to analyse Europeans’ behaviour towards ethnic minorities (preference for the employment of nationals and xenophobia). Even though the situation varies greatly from one country to another, we find a geographical distribution similar to that for tolerance, with the countries of northern Europe showing the least xenophobic attitudes in 2008 and those in the south and the former Soviet bloc having the most xenophobic behaviour. Generally, over a long period (1990-2008), the trend is for xenophobia to decline, but the coherence between the values of tolerance and attitudes towards ethnic minorities remains stable, confirming the partially cultural dimension of positioning with regard to xenophobia. 

Revue

Société, modes de vie

The Individualization of European Societies

Several articles in this special issue on Europeans’ values have foregrounded an important factor influencing their development: individualization, in the sense of the pursuit of autonomy and of the valuing of individual choices, which is to be distinguished from individualism, which refers, rather, to a withdrawal into oneself, as Pierre Bréchon reminds us here. How, then, has the individualization of European societies evolved in recent decades and what does this mean in terms of the more general development of values in Europe?

After reminding readers of the indicators from the Values survey that enable us to gauge this process of individualization, Bréchon stresses the geographical differences involved. While the countries of Northern Europe and France display a high level of individualization, those of Eastern and Southern Europe are below average in this regard, some of them standing out with a particularly low level (Poland, Romania, Turkey etc.). He shows the major role of the religious dimension in this geography of individualization, with the Protestant countries being the most individualized and those of Orthodox or Muslim religion having the lowest degree of individualization.

Lastly, Bréchon analyses the other socio-demographic variables (age, income, level of education etc.) linked to individualization and stresses the high correlation between individualization and sociability: the most individualized societies are also the most trusting and tolerant in most areas, the most altruistic and the most politically active. In fact, the observed advance in individualization of European societies is not at all synonymous with individualistic withdrawal, but actually goes together with a greater respect for others and the development of a “shared sociability”.

Following this article, Pierre Bréchon, who coordinated this special dossier on Europeans’ values, lists the major lessons to be learned (in particular, the strengthening of the values of individualization, in parallel with the persistence of firm social bonds and a growing demand for collective regulation), stresses the continuing existence of differences between geographical and cultural zones, and offers some possible future perspectives.

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Société, modes de vie

The Meaning of Work within the European Union

The serious economic crisis that has afflicted Europe for more than five years and its consequences for employment have confirmed the importance of having a job today, if such confirmation were needed, jobs being both an essential source of income for most individuals and the means of –both personal and social– self-affirmation. The last wave of survey activity for the European Values Study, carried out in 2008, at a point when Europe had barely yet been hit by the crisis, even then confirmed this central role of work in European societies. Jean-François Tchernia analyses the findings in this field, showing how Europeans position themselves with regard to work as a social norm, on the one hand, and how they see their personal aspirations as working individuals, on the other.

When it comes to social norms, Europeans take a rather traditional view: work is generally regarded as a social duty and idleness is viewed negatively; work is to be seen as a source of self-esteem. Regarding individual aspirations, Europeans expect work to be a source of personal satisfaction (initiative, development of skills, social usefulness etc.), but also to bring material satisfaction (income, acceptable working hours, holidays etc.). Jean-François Tchernia notes the differences that are found from country to country, as well as the correlations between the various factors employed in the Values Study to measure these aspects. In every case there are strong national divergences affecting this general picture; in particular, Europeans in the countries with the longest-standing economic development tend to value most highly the part played by work in personal fulfilment, whereas in the less developed countries material aspirations count for more. At the end of the article, Jean-François Tchernia also analyses Europeans’ attitudes towards leisure.

Editorial

Société, modes de vie

Les valeurs des Européens

Comme je m’en suis expliqué dans un récent éditorial [1], la crise économique et sociale, loin de revêtir un caractère purement conjoncturel, résulte sans doute d’une mutation structurelle entre un modèle de société qui n’en finit pas de mourir et un autre qui n’en finit pas de naître. Et si certains s’opposent à cette mutation radicale ; d’autres en revanche en sont déjà les acteurs. Ce phénomène ne résulte pas seulement d’une transformation profonde ...

(789 more words)

Revue

Société, modes de vie

Social Capital in Europe: Trust, Sociability, Community Life

Social capital, a recent notion that appeared in the 1990s, refers to the nature and quality of the bonds linking individuals in a society and their ability to develop trust and maintain relationships. We learn much about these topics from the surveys of European values that form the core of this special issue of Futuribles. Vincent Tournier presents the various lessons in this article.

First, he stresses the diversity of social capital in Europe, as measured by the level of interpersonal trust and community participation (trade unions, political parties, religious movements, sporting associations etc.) and also by more concrete probing regarding the neighbours one would be happy (or unhappy) to have. He then offers various strands of explanation of the level of trust or mistrust: a correlation with the degree of statism, level of wealth (inequalities in income and wealth being more influential factors in generating mistrust than the degree of statism) and religion (countries with Protestant traditions showing a higher level of trust) etc. He concerns himself lastly with the links that exist between interpersonal and political trust (opinions about democracy and institutions, the preference for a “strong man” to govern the country etc.), which are admittedly real but are not to be over-exaggerated.

In all these areas Tournier presents the overall findings and the finer variations within each country. He also looks more closely at the situation of France and at the argument that social relations are deteriorating and mistrust increasing there. This would seem to be a catastrophist view, which the findings of the Values Study do not entirely support when analysed more subtly.

Revue

Société, modes de vie

Couples and Marriage as seen by Europeans

The agitation surrounding the parliamentary vote extending marriage to same-sex couples in France in spring 2013 has shown the importance a section of the population still accords to traditional family values. Is this phenomenon specific to France? And does it represent a minority standpoint or even a wavering view? Thanks to the European Values Studies, we have substantial elements of an answer so far as most countries of the European continent are concerned and in some cases we can identify trends over almost 30 years. Sandrine Astor and Nathalie Dompnier offer a detailed analysis of these here, showing how Europeans’ perceptions with regard to couples and marriage are changing.

The authors concern themselves first with the conception Europeans have of marriage as an institution, as well as with how accepting they are of unmarried partnerships, highlighting geographical divides, age and generational effects, and, in passing, stressing correlations with other variables (religion, religious practice). The authors then examine the elements that are regarded as important in the success of marriage, stressing the great stability of the hierarchy of factors –those relating to marital harmony and personal fulfilment coming out on top and increasing in importance by comparison with those relating to material conditions or similarity of socio-cultural background. Here again the divergences observed between different countries are pointed out, and these attest once again to the influence of the dominant social model. Lastly, the article analyses the evolution of the conceptions of male and female roles within the couple, stressing the advance of egalitarian conceptions in Western and Northern Europe, whereas more conservative views of the family persist in Eastern Europe.

Overall, the trends noted and the development of critical judgements of marriage as an institution do not seem to have affected the continuing attachment to certain values specific to it (fidelity, understanding, children) and, indeed, to the social norm it represents. It is simply that a more flexible vision of the couple, more in keeping with individual freedom and sexual equality, is tending to develop in Europe.

Revue

Société, modes de vie

Religiosity in Western Europe: Developments over the Last 30 Years

The European Values Study is one of the rare surveys to devote so much space to the religious dimension and to allow us to observe developments in nine countries of Western Europe (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain) over three decades, from 1981 to 2008. In this article Pierre Bréchon draws the main lessons from that study so far as religious practices and beliefs in Western Europe are concerned. He shows, for example, how the various dimensions of religiosity have changed over time in these countries: how institutional attachment to a religious universe has fallen appreciably in Western Europe (with two countries –Italy and Ireland– resisting secularization); how individual religious practice (prayer and meditation) is also in decline; how the image of the Churches is generally worsening, though the demand for specific ceremonies has been maintained (marriages, burials etc.). There generally is a lesser intensity of religious feelings, less belief in a god, while belief in life after death, heaven, hell and sin has changed, as well as belief in reincarnation and good luck charms. Pierre Bréchon goes on to stress the high level of consistency in religious attitudes (between faiths, cultural practices etc.) and studies the evolution of the level of religiosity (declining in Western Europe, but with variations between different countries) and the possible correlations with the sex, age, educational level etc. of the persons surveyed. Lastly, after an analysis of the observed dissonances in religiosity and the remodellings of religious belief, Pierre Bréchon shows the extent to which the impact of religious socialization remains determinant. He also offers an analysis of levels of religiosity by age-group, from which it emerges that, where religion is concerned, the generational effect is the most crucial, the general trend being towards a gradual decline in religiosity over the generations.

Chapitre Société, modes de vie

Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.