Recherche, sciences, techniques

Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Les Perspectives des communications de l’OCDE 2007

Pour dessiner le paysage des télécommunications dans les pays de l'OCDE, cette neuvième édition d'une série qui paraît tous les deux ans reprend les mêmes têtes de chapitre : grandes orientations, évolutions récentes des politiques, taille, dimensions et évolution du marché et des réseaux, Internet, radiodiffusion, tarification et échanges commerciaux. De plus, un chapitre original traite des communications dans les économies émergentes regroupées sous l'acronyme « BRICs » (Brésil, Russie, Inde, Chine auxquels est ajoutée l'Afrique du Sud). Depuis ...

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CR table ronde

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

La responsabilité du scientifique

Aux yeux des scientifiques qui se consacrent à la recherche fondamentale, seule compte la poursuite du savoir pour lui-même, sans liens avec ses répercussions. Et nombre de scientifiques dans des recherches appliquées pensent de même : les effets d’une découverte ou d’une invention ne sont pas de leur ressort. Dénégation dont Jean-Jacques Salomon a voulu explorer les témoignages, analyser les sources, éclairer les dimensions à travers les différents rôles qu’exercent aujourd’hui les scientifiques.

Paroles d’acteurs

Recherche, sciences, techniques

The great divide

In a book to be published this month, Jean-Jacques Salomon pursues the thoughts he has been having for years about the relationship between science and society, and in particular about the various rôles played by scientists today, most of whom prefer to distance themselves from the consequences of their discoveries - as J. Robert Oppenheimer, the "father" of the atomic bombs that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki, used to say, let's not confuse the actor and the instrument. Futuribles provides an extract from the book, whose title is Les Scientifiques. Entre pouvoir et savoir (The Scientists. Between Power and Knowledge).
According to Salomon, scientific progress is no longer necessarily synonymous with progress for humanity and we must be aware of this if we are to avoid allowing scientists alone to decide what develops from their work. After outlining the sometimes underhand way in which some scientists persuade the public to approve of their discoveries - by acknowledging certain possible drawbacks in order better to hide the serious risks involved (on the "vaccination model" that Roland Barthes was fond of evoking) - he uses the example of research in the field of nanotechnologies, which is still in its infancy, to highlight the question of what limits there should be, now more than ever before, with regard to what is possible as well as what is desirable.
In a world in which henceforth "ability" outstrips "knowledge", even for scientists, the whole book - based on a study of this new profession and the thoughts of the scientists who have had the greatest impact on contemporary history - questions whether there is still a place for socially responsible science or whether the courage of individual "dissidents" like Sakharov and Einstein remains the only model for resisting the pressures from politicians and the military-industrial complex.

Note de veille

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Microsoft gère mal la confiance de ses clients

Les spécialistes dénoncent dans le nouveau navigateur de Microsoft une faille de sécurité que l’éditeur a négligé de corriger alors qu’elle lui avait été signalée par une start-up il y a six mois. Un exemple du mépris d’une grande entreprise pour la compétence des PME (petites et moyennes entreprises)… et pour des utilisateurs contraints par une position de quasi-monopole. Une attitude qui coûte en fait cher à Microsoft.??

Note de veille

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Hauts débits et téléphone : l’irruption des électriciens

Un programme démarrant en 2007 proposera à terme un accès Internet à haut débit et de téléphonie, même sans ordinateur à un million et demi de foyers en Île-de-France. Les “courants porteurs en ligne” entrent en concurrence directe avec les solutions des acteurs des télécommunications à la fois dans les immeubles et à l’extérieur.??

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Brazil: Scientific and Technological Prospects

Brazil, the largest country in Latin America, is also the world's 11th largest economy. However, its relatively recent growth has not been accompanied by the investment needed to modernize its economy. The government in Brasilia is aware of this weakness and is now devoting an increasing share of the country's gross domestic product to research and development, as well as to diversifying its sources of energy. Brazil is also developing its aircraft and space sectors, activities that are a luxury of the richest countries.
Rémy Lestienne, a researcher with the French state research organization (CNRS), describes the extent of Brazil's achievements and its plans in these areas. He highlights the successful results of past investment, in agriculture and above all in energy, since Brazil appears to have understood the importance of not being dependent on others for energy supplies sooner than many Western countries. Yet much still needs to be done, especially in creating wider access to education and to technology. Brazil must also ensure that its development does not damage the biodiversity of Amazonia. In addition, Rémy Lestienne regrets the fact that the tradition of scientific and technological co-operation between France and Brazil has recently been allowed to lapse - a partnership that both countries would benefit from reviving.

Analyse prospective

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Les conséquences de la bataille des microprocesseurs

La culture des dirigeants et le type de management des hommes peuvent influencer les résultats opérationnels jusquíà remettre en cause une situation d'hégémonie historique comme celle d'Intel. S'étant enfoncé dans une impasse stratégique faute d'avoir écouté ses techniciens, Intel devrait continuer à céder du terrain devant AMD. Les options techniques díIntel ont entraîné une surconsommation énergétique équivalant à plusieurs tranches de centrale nucléaire par an. La progression d'AMD dont les processeurs consomment beaucoup moins d ...

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Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques

The American Space Shuttle. Analysis of a Strategic Error

It was against the background of the technological rivalry between East and West during the Cold War that the United States launched a programme in the early 1970s to build a space shuttle. In addition to affirming America's technological superiority, the aims of the space shuttle were to put commercial satellites into orbit and, in the longer term, to build and use an orbiting space station (which became in time an international venture).
Several incidents occurred in the course of the Shuttle programme, two of them sadly resulting in the death of the whole crew: Challenger (in 1986) and Columbia (in 2003). André Lebeau looks back on the various strategic errors in the design of the Shuttle and in the launch operations that led to these disasters and to the fact that the programme is now more or less bogged down.
After a discussion of the technical reasons for these setbacks, he highlights the unfortunate interplay of financial constraints and pressures to perform that led to dangerous decisions being taken (linked in part to the growth of real international competition). Lastly, he stresses the way that the running of such a programme encounters technical, economic and political obstacles and delays that make any change of direction both slow and complicated.

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

The Posthuman World. Review of Rémi Sussan, "Les Utopies posthumaines"

The last few decades have been marked by breathtaking technological progress that raised great hopes but also generated certain fears for the future of the human race. Futuribles has regularly provided a forum for debate about such issues, ranging from cloning to technology convergence or transhumanism.
In this article, Geoffrey Delcroix looks at one aspect of the interactions between science and society: the ideas and theories about the posthuman world that have been developed over the last century, based on Rémi Sussan's book, Les Utopies posthumaines. Contre-culture, cyberculture, culture du chaos (Posthuman Utopias. Counter-culture, Cyber-culture, Chaos-culture, Sophia-Antipolis: Omniscience, 2005, 288 pp., website www.omniscience.fr). He offers an overview of the history of posthuman scenarios, from the pioneers of New Age to cyberpunks or chaos-culture via the neurochemical revolution, showing that the human imagination knows few limits when it comes to increasing our chances of immortality.

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

Wageningen and the "Food Valley". The Challenge of Clusters of Excellence Combining Research, Training and Business

In 2004-2005, the French government decided to stimulate innovation in France by - among other measures - creating special clusters across the country which would promote synergies among firms, education and training, and research. Just over 60 clusters were chosen from among the applicants, in many diverse fields, ranging from aeronautics to information technologies, via biotechnologies, etc. Several of the clusters were specifically geared to the farming and food industry, such as the Fruit and Vegetables cluster at Avignon.
Michel Dodet, vice-president for international affairs of INRA (the French Institute for Agricultural Research), examines at the food sector, in particular the successful Dutch experience at Wageningen, the Netherlands' Food Valley. He first looks in detail at the origin of the Food Valley and the way it operates, then turns to the Avignon cluster, before highlighting the key factors behind the success of the Food Valley, which might be helpful in France. Finally, he discusses the limits of this experience, in particular the lack of a shared vision of the long term and the risk of emphasizing access merely to existing knowledge at the expense of investment in research (in the long run). Consequently what is needed is a judicious mix in the "ecosystem" of initial participants ready to share their strong points in order to improve their competitiveness along with the political will to intervene so as to organize and develop the resulting cluster.

Note de veille

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Le Web est plébiscité !

L’expression Web 2.0 désigne l’évolution du Web vers des services donnant la possibilité aux utilisateurs de personnaliser leur façon d’utiliser les réseaux numériques, d’agréger des contenus, des applications, de collaborer, de valoriser un très grand nombre de données ou de petites transactions, de prendre la parole en ligne.

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Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Le PC à 100 dollars nous concerne

Le pari de Nicoholas Negroponte (MediaLab du MIT) et de l’association One Laptop Per Child (http://laptop.org/en/) de fournir un ordinateur portable à bas prix aux enfants des pays émergents au travers des écoles, ne concerne pas que le tiers-monde. Les conséquences sont de quatre ordres.

Note de veille

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Le haut débit sans fil, service public ou prestation commerciale ?

Aux États-Unis, mais aussi en Europe, de nombreuses initiatives tendent à la mise en place de vastes réseaux haut débit sans fil. L’économie de ces nouvelles infrastructures de communication est diverse : service public gratuit, accès payant ou financé par la publicité, les opérateurs et leurs commanditaires développent des modèles variés et ne visent pas tous le même public.

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Teleworking in Perspective

In recent years the information and communication technologies have flooded Western households (personal computers, cell phones, the Internet, etc.), sometimes helping to blur the boundaries between professional and private life. Against this background, has teleworking (working at a distance, working while travelling or dividing time between home and office) increased in the industrialized countries?
Anne de Beer sets out the regulations governing teleworking in France, in Europe and in the United States, and presents the results of various surveys carried out in these areas that give an idea of how widespread the practice has become. Whereas in the United States 24.6% of those with jobs do some teleworking, this is true of only 13% of those working in the 15 (pre-enlargement) members of the European Union, with wide regional differences (the Netherlands and Scandinavian countries are far ahead of southern Europe). On the basis of these surveys the author shows what the benefits of teleworking are for employers and employees, and which factors are likely to promote or restrict its spread.
Quite apart from its potential economic and organizational advantages for firms, teleworking also relates to some social choices such as quality of life and job satisfaction for workers, as well as to more macroeconomic factors such as employees' productivity and environmental protection (energy savings and reduced traffic pollution).

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Internet and Business. Review of the Yolin Report

Is the spread of information technologies, above all the Internet, an asset for businesses? If so, do they make the best use of the opportunities these technologies offer? How is the situation likely to change and therefore what new opportunities are likely to present themselves? Do firms in France know how to seize them and do the authorities know how to encourage them?
These are among the questions that Jean-Michel Yolin has tried to answer every year since 1997 in a report to the French Minister of Industry. Here Gérard Blanc shares the main conclusions of the report published at the end of 2005, presenting the current state of technology and the emerging trends, as well as showing that French firms have still not made the most of all the inherent opportunities.

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Science Policy and Freedom to Conduct Research

As scientific progress becomes ever more rapid, it is essential for those engaged in research to take the time to look critically at the activity itself, its purposes and its potential consequences. However, as Pierre Boistard argues, researchers have less and less time to devote to such issues or perhaps lack the right tools for the job. For this reason, the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) set up a working group in 1994 on "Sciences in questions", one of whose main aims was to help clarify the current debates about science and research in an accessible and attractive form.
The lectures arranged by the working group were originally intended only for researchers working for INRA, but they were later published as a series under the same title. The success of this series confirmed the need for such reflections on the relationships between researchers, science and society. Pierre Boistard presents here the origins, working methods and aims of the working group, as well as the main debates that it has organized. Lastly, he discusses the value of such reflections for scientific foresight studies.

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Recherche, sciences, techniques

Vendeurs de relations contre opérateurs de télécommunications, suite

Un conflit est en train d’éclater entre les opérateurs classiques de télécommunications et les Google, Yahoo! et autres e-Bay. Ces sociétés nées avec Internet développent un modèle économique basé sur l’offre de services gratuits incluant la téléphonie, rentabilisés par la publicité et le commerce, qui déstabilise des opérateurs dont le métier est — encore — de gérer des tuyaux et de faire payer les utilisateurs à la minute de communication.?

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Recherche, sciences, techniques

Quaero, un moteur à la recherche de son dessein ?

Janvier s’est écoulé sans que l’Agence de l’innovation industrielle (AII) présente, comme cela avait été annoncé depuis décembre, le projet franco-allemand Quaero, moteur de recherche multimédia. Quaero devrait d’ici le printemps être labellisé et recevoir 200 à 400 millions d’euros par an sur cinq ans (Google a investi 327 millions de dollars en recherche et développement sur les neuf derniers mois de 2005) ?

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques

The New Look of Computing

Pierre Bonnaure surveys here the different trends that are changing the world of computing today. He starts by recalling that Moore's Law - which for more than 30 years has predicted that the density of microprocessors (i.e. the number of transistors integrated on a single silicon chip) would double every 18 months - might well reach saturation point quite quickly. He highlights the various innovations under way or in the pipeline from most of the manufacturers of processors (Intel, IBM...) in order to cope with these limits and improve computer architecture. Lastly, he assesses the impact of these changes on the main producers of computer hardware and software, and the shifts in strategy of the main players in the sector.

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Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Voyages : plus de 10 % du CA par Internet

Faits : Les Européens vont effectuer 11,3% de leurs achats de voyages en ligne en 2006 (9,5 % en 2005), selon le Center for Regional and Tourism Research danois. Les Américains ont déjà en 2005 dépensé 65,4 milliards de dollars US pour réserver 30% de leurs titres de voyage en ligne (+25,5%/an) d’après PhoCusWright. L’influence d’Internet dépasse ces chiffres car beaucoup d’achats conclus par les voies traditionnelles sont préparés en ligne. Selon une ...

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Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Information Economy Report 2006. The Development Perspective

Le Sommet mondial sur la société de l'information, qui s'est tenu à Tunis en novembre 2005, a affirmé le rôle des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) dans le développement. L'engagement a été pris de veiller à ce que les TIC servent à l'instauration d'une société de l'information « véritablement mondiale, ouverte et solidaire, profitant aux individus partout dans le monde ». Le premier chapitre de ce rapport traite du degré de participation ...

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Chapitre recherche, sciences...

Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.