Recherche, sciences, techniques

Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques

A Roadmap for US Robotics. From Internet to Robotics

Pour réaliser ce rapport, un groupe de travail composé de 140 experts, universitaires et industriels, ont été réunis afin envisager l’évolution de la robotique, en particulier aux États-Unis, à l’horizon 2025. Depuis quelques années, le secteur de la robotique a connu un développement très rapide de ses technologies et de ses applications, dans l’industrie, la logistique, la santé... L’Asie est aujourd’hui le premier investisseur mondial dans la recherche en robotique (un milliard de dollars pour ...

(304 more words)

Rapport étude

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Science and Technology Foresight : Four French Case Studies

The very rapid progress of the sciences and technologies, their distinctive characteristics and the highly varied uses to which they can be put demand from us more than ever an effort of vigilance, foresight and evaluation. In recent years in France that effort – covered by the generic term ‘Technology Foresight’ – has given rise to a number of exercises relating to the French system of research and innovation (FutuRIS), to Key Technologies 2010, to the future of the strategy of the ...

(encore 85 mots)

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques

The Bioeconomy to 2030 : Designing a Policy Agenda

Les biotechnologies, qui développent les applications des découvertes de la biologie et de la génétique, sont souvent considérées comme le vecteur d?une nouvelle « révolution technologique ». Les applications des biotechnologies englobent les domaines de la santé, de la production agricole et des procédés industriels (notamment en chimie) et leurs implications institutionnelles, politiques et éthiques sont nombreuses. C?est ce champ qui constitue la « bioéconomie » dont l?OCDE examine les perspectives à l?horizon 2030. En 2005, la biotechnologie, au sens ...

(839 more words)

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques

La Société et l’économie à l’aune de la révolution numérique. Enjeux et perspectives des prochaines décennies (2015 / 2025)

L?économie numérique constitue un domaine très jeune, mais déjà très complexe, car il concerne un grand nombre de disciplines : économie, technologies, sciences sociales? De plus, l?économie numérique se caractérise par la rapidité de ses évolutions, qui complique toute tentative de prévision mais confère une vraie utilité aux exercices de prospective menés sur ce sujet. D?où l?intérêt de la réflexion menée par la commission Économie numérique, présidée par Alain Bravo, et dont le CAS publie ici les ...

(967 more words)

Bibliography

Géopolitique - Recherche, sciences, techniques - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

China’s Green Revolution. Prioritizing Technologies to Achieve Energy and Environmental Sustainability

L’institut McKinsey, qui s’intéresse de plus en plus aux solutions permettant de diminuer les émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) de la planète, étudie ici le cas de la Chine. Quelque 200 mesures ont été étudiées, avec une attention particulière dans cinq secteurs : les bâtiments résidentiels et commerciaux, le transport, les émissions de CO2 des industries lourdes, la production d’électricité, l’agriculture et la foresterie. Le potentiel maximum de réduction d’émissions de CO2 a ...

(535 more words)

CR colloque

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Rencontre Jean-Jacques Salomon : « Science et politique »

Cette journée était simultanément un hommage et un débat. Elle a donné lieu à la publication de deux articles dans la revue Futuribles : "Hommage à Jean-Jacques Salomon", par André Lebeau dans le numéro de mars 2008 "Science, technologie et theatrum belli", par Geneviève Schméder dans le numéro de février 2009

Forum

Économie, emploi - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Derivatives and Other Mathematical Aberrations

Much ink is still to flow on the financial crisis of autumn 2008. It is difficult as yet to evaluate the extent of the damage and if we do venture some mid- or long-term forecasts in the pages of Futuribles, we do so only with the utmost caution. It seems, in fact, to have become virtually impossible to determine how things are going to develop in the financial sphere, since the players have lost all confidence in each other and, despite intervention on an unprecedented scale, the powers that be are finding it difficult to restore trust.
Analysts have remained cautious even on the deep causes of this crisis, given that those in the world of finance themselves still find it hard to understand how matters raced so far out of their control. Is mathematical modelling, which is a key element in the operation of global financial markets, in some way to blame for the current parlous situation, and, if so, to what extent? Pierre Papon inquires here into the significant role played by that modelling, demonstrating, in substance, that mathematical tools are undoubtedly very useful in the financial field, but that they have to be regularly submitted to both theoretical and practical testing.

Note de veille

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Faut-il redouter la concurrence technologique chinoise ?

La Chine suscite à la fois intérêt et interrogations : considérée comme l'usine de la planète, les pays développés redoutent qu'elle les concurrence sur le terrain de la technologie. Cela rend d'autant plus intéressant la lecture du rapport que l'OCDE a consacré à la politique d'innovation en Chine.

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

Will Science and Technique Head Off Energy Shortage?

Fluctuations in the price of the standard barrel of oil have been making headlines for several years now. In remaining at a high level in 2008 (with a peak of 150 US dollars in July), it seems to have left a marked impression on consumers, sensitizing them to the ever more imminent advent of a new energy era. Unless there is something approaching a technical revolution in this field, there is a danger that the increasing scarcity of fossil resources will appreciably raise energy costs and changed consumer habits will ensue.
Is the prospect of such a revolution plausible? Can there be scientific and technical breakthroughs in the coming years that produce improvements or new paths in energy production? Pierre Papon has examined this question. After briefly summing up the current energy situation (in a context, we should remember, of climate change), he offers a detailed overview of the various options for the exploration and use of fossil fuels, bio-fuels, hydrogen etc. He also demonstrates the potential and limits of renewables, together with the prospects for the nuclear industry. In all these fields there seems little hope of a revolution before 2030: adaptation to a context of growing scarcity of energy supplies remains, then, a pressing question. However, as Pierre Papon reminds us, we cannot rule out the emergence of a new paradigm in physics that could radically alter the situation (such as occurred, for example, with the theory of relativity); hence the indispensable research effort that must be put in by both scientists and funders.

Futuribles

Économie, emploi - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Bibliographie prospective n°65

La Bibliographie prospective du mois de novembre 2008 consacre son Focus à un rapport publié par l'OCDE sur la politique d'innovation en Chine : Reviews of Innovation Policy: China. Le bilan des réformes apparaît très contrasté : le développement de l'enseignement supérieur étant encore insuffisant et l'importante hausse des dépenses en R&D pas toujours judicieusement attribuée, bien des défis restent encore à relever. Vous trouverez par ailleurs, et comme chaque mois, une sélection de comptes rendus de livres ...

(29 more words)

Note de veille

Recherche, sciences, techniques

L’attention des Internautes, une ressource précieuse ?

L'Internet 2.0 offrirait, on le sait, des possibilités quasi illimitées en termes de relations sociales, d'information, d'échanges... Mais est-ce vraiment ainsi que les internautes conçoivent le monde virtuel ? À en croire certains spécialistes de l'économie de l'attention, bien au contraire, les internautes se concentreraient sur un nombre très limité de sites et d'informations.

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement - Société, modes de vie

Climate: Science, Ideology and Politics. An Emblematic Controversy

Climate change is now a familiar subject for most of the individuals living in the industrialized countries, and no doubt a subject of growing interest in the emergent countries such as China. It arises with increasing frequency in the discussion of current affairs, when there is a significant climatic event (tornado, flood, drought etc.), international negotiations on how to deal with global warming, or scientific discussions etc.
How has this theme lodged itself in public debate? Who are the actors in that debate and how much of a part do they play? André Lebeau has examined these questions, attempting to determine how this initially highly scientific subject has over time found a foothold in economic, political and media debate.
After a brief presentation of the various actors concerned, he makes a detailed analysis of the emergence of the debate within the scientific community, particularly through the IPCC (the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). He then shows how climate change has entered economic debate, further gaining in complexity because it is so difficult to envisage its impacts or the economic solutions to it over time-periods of the order of a century. He then stresses the contribution of the media which, while giving the phenomenon visibility and hence making it a subject of interest for public opinion and the political world, do not always distinguish between what is essential and what is merely secondary. Lastly, he clarifies the current role of public opinion and of political decision-makers with regard to climate change, stressing that the process of entry into the debate and of dealing politically with climate questions is a very slow one - perhaps too slow, given the scale of the responses required.

Note de veille

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Les nouveaux usages du téléphone portable

En 2008, 88 % de la population française possèdent un téléphone portable, un chiffre en hausse de 6,6 % par rapport à 2007. Et, dans le monde, il y avait, fin 2007, environ 3,3 milliards de portables en service. Conscients de l'énorme potentiel de ce secteur, les industriels multiplient les fonctionnalités et les possibilités offertes par les téléphones portables.

Revue

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

The Sharing of Talents. Flexicurity by Employer Groupings

In the current context of economic globalization, combining employment flexibility and employee security is one of the major challenges for France and Europe. Alongside the Danish route, which consists in making redundancy easier while at the same time boosting the performance of the employment agencies, the option of employer groupings can also be very attractive, both for employees and for companies. By coming together jointly to employ their workers - who operate in various companies within the group depending on the season or day of the week - the companies provide their employees with stable, open-ended employment and, at the same time, profit from the enhanced experience of these "multi-company" workers, while, at the same time, expanding their networks and increasing their synergy.

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Knowing Your Turf

Jean-François Zobrist has been chief executive of an SME since 1983. He runs a foundry employing 550 people, which shows that harnessing talent and will is not just a matter for the high-tech sectors and hyper-qualified executives - and that good intentions can go hand in hand with healthy accounts. FAVI, a family business based in Hallencourt in Picardy, has proved itself the world leader in copper alloy injection. It is an economic success supported by research, product innovation and, above all, the humanistic management of its employees. The keys to that success are trust, strong values rather than regulations, clearly defined aims, a margin of freedom for the employees, and objective reasons for each person to contribute personally to the collective performance.

Chapitre recherche, sciences...

Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.