Institutions

Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)

Revue

Institutions

Moderniser l’État, moderniser le service public

A reform of the public service is one of the major challenges facing France at the beginning of the 21st century if the country is to rid itself of its excessive bureaucracy, centralism and corporatism.
Bernard Brunhes examines what has been done in other European countries, in particular Britain and Sweden where effective reforms have been launched, and identifies several factors needed for success. He argues that these countries started from a simple idea: "a public service is a service to the public"; this focuses on the relationship with the consumer-citizen and client rather than with the user of public services. In the light of the successful experiences abroad, he says, there needs to be a change of approach in France, with above all an emphasis on devolution and decentralization. Today, as the process of providing services becomes increasingly complex, decisions must be taken as close as possible to the point of delivery.
In addition to these two main approaches, reforming a public service also involves communication. This means communicating via the hierarchy -the driving force for all change- but also via the unions and not in spite of them. As for direct communication, both internal and external, it must be able to transmit messages, register what people want and not err in favour of prudence out of fear of annoying civil servants.
Above and beyond these recommendations, the changes in the way political/administrative arrangements operate in the European Union calls for a new style of public governance. Among the reforms that would be desirable, Bernard Brunhes stresses the importance of increasing, on the one hand, the partnerships between public authorities and private entrepreneurs and, on the other, the interactions among the various actors concerned since he is sure that the public administration can no longer take decisions alone and must no longer govern alone. It is also important to draw up, collectively and democratically, new rules of the game and, finally, to foster the role of the voluntary sector in order to cope with the demands of the consumer society and sustainable development.

Revue

Institutions

La réforme de l’administration britannique

Throughout the industrialized world, reform of the system of public administration is on the agenda: in both Australia and New Zealand, in both the United States and Canada, in both Britain and Sweden. In all these countries there are problems relating to the tasks assigned to the state, the efficiency of the state, of the extent and the results of its interventions. In a good number of the countries mentioned, thorough reforms are in fact under way. The example of the United Kingdom is especially interesting because the reforms have been a major element in the programmes of successive Prime Ministers: Margaret Thatcher, John Major and, since 1997, Tony Blair. Each of them in turn has helped to bring about radical administrative reforms over the course of the last 20 years or more.
This article concentrates mainly on analysing the reform of the public administration launched by the Blair government in 1998, in particular with regard to improving the process of drawing up and implementing public policies.

CR table ronde

Institutions

La réforme des retraites

Tout le monde s'accorde aujourd'hui à reconnaître que la situation n'est pas fameuse en matière de retraites. Mais l'intervenant remarque dès l'abord que ceci n'est pas exclusivement lié à la démographie. Il y a certes eu une détérioration du rapport des 20-59 ans aux 60 ans et plus (d'un rapport de 3,3 pour 1 en 1950, on passe à 2,65 début 1970, pour atteindre presque 3 en 1980, et redescendre à ...

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Revue

Institutions

Retraites : ajustement ou réforme ?

It has been obvious for years -and studies over the last 40 years have indeed forecast- that France, just like the rest of Europe, would be faced with an ageing population which would in turn mean having to undertake a major reform of pensions. Such a reform has been part of the present French government's programme, but it remains to be seen what measures will be adopted and how effective they are.
One of the most often cited measures would be to increase the number of contribution-years needed in order to qualify for a full pension, as has already happened for employees in the private sector. However, Jacques Bichot argues here that the significance of this number differs depending on the particular state pension scheme (the basic old age pension, the supplementary pensions schemes, the arrangements for civil servants and other special categories), and that a straightforward adjustment, such as a shift from 37.5 to 40 contribution-years, would not be enough to achieve equality among them.
More seriously still, he shows that the system of contribution-years has many drawbacks, for example, the fact that they do not carry equal weight, depending on when they occur, and that the system is far too rigid, which can lead to the state and the social partners being obliged to default on commitments made years or decades earlier. He shows, too, that the pensions systems are arranged in such a way that the amount paid out is calculated according to rules that take no account of the resources available, which means that it is the resources that have to be adjusted and therefore the workforce suffers, unless the system is allowed to go into "partial bankruptcy", which threatens the legitimate rights of retired people.
The author consequently argues strongly in favour of a change to the rules governing the French pensions system. In particular, he would like a unified system with the same points for everyone and no actuarial bias, so that individuals would know precisely what their position was and could act accordingly; the system could then always be operated in line with current circumstances but without harming established rights.
Rather than putting an end to the present rigid arrangements with an uncertain future, the analyses and proposals made here by Jacques Bichot are motivated by a justified need both to restore equity with regard to pensions in France and to allow there to be constant and smooth adjustments in the face of turbulent and uncertain social and economic circumstances.

Bibliography

Institutions - Population - Santé

« Les conséquences du vieillissement de la population sur les dépenses de santé »

Le vieillissement de la population française est inéluctable. Quel impact aura-t-il sur les dépenses publiques de santé ? Pour estimer cet impact, un premier scénario consiste à appliquer le profil de dépenses par âge, tel qu'on peut le constater aujourd'hui, à la pyramide des âges future. Selon ce scénario « mécanique », l'augmentation de la dépense remboursée, hors soins de long terme, serait de l'ordre de 0.9 point du PIB (produit intérieur brut) en 2020. Mais ce scénario ...

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Bibliography

Institutions - Recherche, sciences, techniques

« Évaluer l’impact des avis scientifiques »

Traditionnellement, la contribution de la science à la politique (processus science / décision politique) peut être considérée comme un continuum qui commence par la prestation de conseils scientifiques et aboutit à la décision politique. Dans ce modèle, les scientifiques sont fortement impliqués dans la première étape (fournir des avis), tandis que leur influence et leur participation diminuent lorsqu'on arrive à la conception et à l'application des politiques. En même temps, l'impact d'autres facteurs, notamment d'ordre social ...

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CR table ronde

Institutions - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

Vingt défis pour la planète ; vingt ans pour y faire face.

Jean-François Rischard, luxembourgeois d'origine et vice-président pour l'Europe de la Banque mondiale, est venu le 5 février présenter son ouvrage "20 défis pour la planète, 20 ans pour y faire face", en précisant qu'il ne l'avait pas écrit en tant que représentant de son institution, mais comme un simple citoyen qui se fait du souci pour l'avenir. Il a introduit son exposé en faisant un état des lieux rapide des problèmes planétaires et en expliquant ...

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Revue

Institutions - Population

Le lobby gris aux États-Unis

Like all the industrialized countries, the population of the United States is ageing significantly, with elderly people accounting for an increasing number and proportion of the total.
In contrast to continental Europe, where the state is meant to embody the common good and where in practice it has developed a major role as protector of the elderly and infirm, in the United States the common good is supposed to emerge from the free interplay of pressure groups which may hold more or less conflicting views and be more or less powerful. Consequently American pensioners defend their cause above all via lobby groups, the best known being the AARP.
In this article, Jean-Philippe Viriot-Durandal first discusses the special role of these lobby groups in the American democratic process, and then looks at how they have helped to shape the policies on old age in the United States. He describes the main pressure groups and shows how they operate with regard to both Congress and the executive branch.
However, the lobbies are not satisfied merely with defending a given cause. Still taking as his example the pressure groups for the elderly, the author shows how American policies are ultimately the result of compromises and short-term coalitions achieved after bitter negotiations.

Bibliography

Institutions - Recherche, sciences, techniques

The Global Course of the Information Revolution, Recurring Themes and Regional Variations

Les avancées en matière de technologies de l'information bouleversent la majorité des domaines, qu'ils concernent le monde des affaires, la société ou le monde politique, et ce dans la plupart des pays. Ce rapport de la Rand clôture un travail de plusieurs années d'exploration des changements provoqués, fournissant un état de la « révolution de l'information » aujourd'hui, ainsi qu'à court et moyen termes (5 à 15 ans). Cette exploration a montré l'existence de nombreux ...

(encore 207 mots)

Bibliography

Institutions

La Démocratie post-totalitaire

Pour Jean-Pierre Le Goff, philosophe de formation et sociologue, le mal-être existentiel et social des sociétés démocratiques n'est pas une simple affaire de « dictature des marchés » et de « manipulation des médias ». Dans son livre, il remet en cause l'approche des tenants de l'antimondialisation qui voient dans le nouveau totalitarisme des marchés et des médias la cause principale du malaise actuel. Selon l'auteur, cette vision du monde est prisonnière de l'économisme et demeure excessive. Il convient ...

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Bibliography

Institutions - Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Méthodes scientifiques d’identification des personnes à partir des données biométriques et les techniques de mise en œuvre

Lorsque le Bureau de l'Assemblée nationale a saisi l'Office parlementaire d'évaluation des choix scientifiques et technologiques d'une étude sur les méthodes d'identification des personnes à partir de données biométriques et sur les techniques de mise en œuvre, cette question ne faisait pas en France l'objet d'un réel débat à la mesure des enjeux en présence. Certes, des mesures se préparaient et se négociaient aux niveaux européen et international, des études étaient engagées, ici ...

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Chapitre Institutions

Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.