Géopolitique

Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)

Bibliography

Géopolitique - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

Land Use Scenarios for Europe

À quoi ressemblera l'Europe de 2050 ? C'est à cette question que tente de répondre l'Agence européenne de l'environnement à travers son étude Prelude (PRospective Environmental Analysis of Land Use Development in Europe). En prenant comme point de départ une description des paysages européens (Union européenne, Norvège et Suisse) actuels, l'AEE imagine différents scénarios d'évolution des paysages. Prelude utilise le mode narratif pour décrire des scénarios en se basant sur un certain nombre d'indicateurs ...

(350 more words)

Bibliography

Géopolitique

Megatrends Europe

Adjiedj Bakas est consultant, directeur de la société néerlandaise Dexter Communicative BV. En se défendant d'être futurologue, il déclare vouloir utiliser les méthodes de prospective pour décrire comment la vie en Europe risque de changer radicalement dans les prochaines décennies, dans un contexte international marqué par deux grandes tendances : le nouvel ordre économique (avec le déclin américain) et l'opposition entre l'Islam et l'Occident (qui fait l'objet de quatre scénarios). L'auteur décrit donc sept tendances ...

(172 more words)

Bibliography

Géopolitique

The Defence Industry Sector - What Future ?

Cette série de trois rapports disponibles en ligne s'intéresse à l'avenir de l'industrie de défense au niveau européen. Le premier texte définit le secteur européen de l'industrie de défense, sa taille, sa structure et son volume d'emploi et ses grandes caractéristiques, le deuxième étudie plus en détail les tendances et facteurs de changement essentiels, enfin le troisième soulève un certain nombre d'enjeux et de défis pour le futur. Sans offrir d'innovation réelle dans ...

(535 more words)

Bibliography

Géopolitique - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections 2006

L'Agence Européenne de l'environnement constate que l'augmentation des émissions de CO2 dans l'Union européenne (UE) en 2003 et 2004, tirées essentiellement par l'accroissement des émissions du transport et de l'industrie, place l'UE-15 à un niveau d'émissions de 0,9 % inférieur à celui de 1990, soit seulement un dixième du chemin à accomplir pour atteindre l'engagement de - 8 % à l'horizon 2008-2012. Mais ses projections sont optimistes : si la poursuite des politiques ...

(136 more words)

Bibliography

Géopolitique - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

European Energy and Transport - Trends to 2030

La Commission européenne a mis à jour son étude de 2003 sur l'énergie et les transports à l'horizon 2030, European Energy and Transport : Trends to 2030. Ce rapport est à la fois un outil de suivi et un bilan des politiques européennes dans les domaines de l'énergie et du transport. Il met en avant les difficultés actuelles et à venir de l'Union européenne (UE) à respecter ses différents engagements, notamment ceux concernant les énergies renouvelables et ...

(334 more words)

Revue

Géopolitique

Towards a Multi-polar World? Some Signs of Change from East Asia

Is the era of a lone superpower dominating international relations coming to an end? The rapid economic growth now occurring in Asia has not yet led to a reshaping of the global geopolitical landscape. Nevertheless Rémi Perelman analyses here a "bundle of facts" that suggest that the American military presence could in time find itself ousted from the countries of East Asia. Thus the Shanghai Cooperation Organization seems to be acquiring a new momentum and is becoming a truly regional organization, with the removal of American armed forces as one of its stated aims. But, according to Perelman, the main challenge to American leadership is likely to come from the bilateral agreements being forged by certain Asian nations, above all Russia and China.
While no Asian country currently seems ready to oppose American power head-on, that power is nevertheless clearly being challenged by the economic, political and geo-strategic alliances that are being developed or planned by such influential nations as China, Russia, India, Pakistan and Iran. It remains to be seen whether the countries of Asia can go beyond these short-term agreements and nurture a joint ambition based on shared interests that might result in the creation of an Asian power bloc as a potential counterweight to the superpower status of the United States. The analysis of the specifics of these flexible alliances forged by the nations of Asia, especially during summer 2005, leads Rémi Perelman to reflect on how they might ultimately be structured within a coherent bloc.

Revue

Géopolitique - Société, modes de vie

The Social Divide in Europe. The Social and Political Worldview of the Workforce in Europe

In total contrast to the current view that tends in particular to highlight the decline of the nation-state - squeezed out as the local and the global levels increase in importance - and also likes to argue that values and behaviour are becoming ever more similar, at least within Europe, this article by Luc Rouban shows that the differences are growing between countries and also, within each country, between the executives (both in the public and the private sectors) and the workforce.
Luc Rouban draws on the results of the first phase of the "European Social Survey", carried out in 2002-2003 on a sample of 19,000 employees in both the public and private sectors. He reveals, in addition to the real French malaise, the very different degrees of politicisation of the workforce from country to country, whether this is measured in terms of their participation in elections or their involvement in voluntary organizations or trade unions. He stresses, however, that the younger age-groups are in general less inclined to vote than their elders, although the level rises in line with the level of education.
One of the explanatory variables appears to lie in attitudes to work, which in turn strongly influences the level of involvement in public life. Both are quite closely correlated with the employees' levels of confidence and independence.
The victory of the "No" vote in the French referendum on the European Constitution in May 2005 is then hardly surprising, the author argues. Interest in Europe remains weak, especially in France, where there seems to be a widening gulf between the executive class and the workforce, whatever their age-group.
Luc Rouban concludes that diverging trends outweigh converging ones within Europe, and he highlights the risks arising from a deep gulf between the elite and the majority of employees; this is particularly striking in France. In contrast to all that is said about European unification and the increasing importance of the local dimension, he stresses the rise of nationalist sentiments that are not merely economic but also cultural.

CR table ronde

Géopolitique

Le déclin de l’Occident ?

Inventeur du concept d’« hyperterrorisme » pour expliquer la nouvelle guerre de l’après-11 septembre, François Heisbourg s’interroge dans son dernier ouvrage sur le déclin de l’Occident en tant qu’entité stratégique. Devant l’auditoire, il a, dans un premier temps, brossé les tendances lourdes et les caractéristiques de l’après-guerre froide.

Revue

Géopolitique - Population

The Family - a Public Matter. Extracts from a Report

Following on from the dossier in this issue evaluating what has been achieved under the Lisbon agenda, Michel Godet and Évelyne Sullerot, who have a written a forthcoming report on the family, stress the urgent need that exists in Europe to invest in its human capital. They point out that Europe is at last realizing that its population is ageing, especially compared with the United States, and that this has consequences in the medium and long term for its economic growth (the economically active population of the 25 member states of the EU might decline by more than 20 million between 2010 and 2030). Unless the birthrate shoots up and immigration rises substantially, there is no way out.
Yet many surveys show that the fall in fertility rates in Europe is not inevitable - women still want to have children - but it is the result of public policies that do too little to help matters. France is admittedly an exception as regards fertility rates, but this does not mean that the country is unaffected by these problems. It is against this background that the French prime minister asked the Conseil d'Analyses Économiques to examine the economic issues arising from the policy on families and its relationship with other social policies.
A working group was set up officially on 1 July 2004 by Christian de Boissieu, the head of the CAE, with Évelyne Sullerot and Michel Godet as co-ordinators. This article provides some extracts from the report, which encourages the public authorities to help combat poverty in families with children and achieve a better balance between the demands of work and family.

Revue

Géopolitique - Société, modes de vie

The Lisbon agenda at the halfway point. The EU Budget 2007-2013. The Future Policy on European Integration in the Face of the Challenges of Enlargement, Competitiveness and Financial Constraints

European issues have been in the headlines in France in recent months because of the debate about the European Constitution to be voted on in a referendum at the end of May. Rarely has public opinion been so strongly aroused in the discussions leading up to a vote. Yet while this is an encouraging sign that people are prepared to re-engage with matters of public concern, it is a shame that the debates have too often neglected the fundamental questions such as the general direction that the European Union should take with regard to economic and social policies between now and 2010.
In March 2000, when the European Council met in Lisbon, the EU heads of state and government adopted a broad policy programme that set ambitious goals for the Union between now and 2010. This programme, labelled the "Lisbon agenda", aims to make the EU "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world" by 2010, with a wide range of goals (some with specific figures attached) in areas as diverse as the economy, employment, the environment, social cohesion, etc.
What progress has been made by the halfway point, in 2005? Are the aims likely to be achieved? What are the prospects for the EU reaching its goal?
To find answers to these questions, Futuribles asked various experts on or involved in European matters to assess progress on the Lisbon agenda at the halfway stage. Elvire Fabry and Gilbert Cette outline the agenda and the main objectives that it sets for member states, then Frédéric Allemand makes a comparative evaluation of how well different member states (including France) have performed relative to the agenda's specific targets. He reckons that, so far, the results are mixed. Jean Pisani-Ferry discusses how the Maastricht criteria have been relaxed for member countries that have made a determined effort to undertake structural reforms or to invest in research and development. Lastly, Marjorie Jouen looks at the outlook for the EU budgets for 2007-2013 and shows how they could promote economic and social dynamism in the Union, and thus contribute to achieving the targets set at Lisbon.

Forum

Géopolitique - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Europe vis-à-vis the Intelligence Revolution

Following on from the special coverage of the situation in Europe as it reaches the halfway point for the Lisbon agenda, André-Yves Portnoff stresses here the EU's increasing failure to keep up with the intelligence revolution. While the very ambitious Lisbon targets were certainly praiseworthy - in particular in wanting to make Europe the world's most dynamic knowledge-based society by 2010 - it is clear that the resources have not been forthcoming to achieve those aims.
For several decades now, according to A.-Y. Portnoff, the Europeans have lagged behind in the key sectors driving the economy, above all informatics and telecommunications. Having failed to make a genuine effort to foster innovation, combined with a clearly defined vision of the future based on the values of its citizens and backed by a strong political will, Europe will continue to dig its own economic grave. The crucial steps, in the author's view, would be to reduce the level of technocratic interference both from Brussels and in some member states (including France), to foster synergies and put more emphasis on human resources, in order to allow small and medium-sized firms to be more creative - since the large ones have shown that they have run out of steam.
If Europe fails to take action along these lines and to establish a proper strategy, it is at risk of falling even further behind vis-à-vis the intelligence revolution and of missing out on future innovations in information and communications technologies. Yet these are the sectors that are now the key to the future.

Revue

Géopolitique - Société, modes de vie

The Lisbon agenda at the halfway point. The Reform of the Stability Pact: Neither Rules nor Discretion?

European issues have been in the headlines in France in recent months because of the debate about the European Constitution to be voted on in a referendum at the end of May. Rarely has public opinion been so strongly aroused in the discussions leading up to a vote. Yet while this is an encouraging sign that people are prepared to re-engage with matters of public concern, it is a shame that the debates have too often neglected the fundamental questions such as the general direction that the European Union should take with regard to economic and social policies between now and 2010.
In March 2000, when the European Council met in Lisbon, the EU heads of state and government adopted a broad policy programme that set ambitious goals for the Union between now and 2010. This programme, labelled the "Lisbon agenda", aims to make the EU "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world" by 2010, with a wide range of goals (some with specific figures attached) in areas as diverse as the economy, employment, the environment, social cohesion, etc.
What progress has been made by the halfway point, in 2005? Are the aims likely to be achieved? What are the prospects for the EU reaching its goal?
To find answers to these questions, Futuribles asked various experts on or involved in European matters to assess progress on the Lisbon agenda at the halfway stage. Elvire Fabry and Gilbert Cette outline the agenda and the main objectives that it sets for member states, then Frédéric Allemand makes a comparative evaluation of how well different member states (including France) have performed relative to the agenda's specific targets. He reckons that, so far, the results are mixed. Jean Pisani-Ferry discusses how the Maastricht criteria have been relaxed for member countries that have made a determined effort to undertake structural reforms or to invest in research and development. Lastly, Marjorie Jouen looks at the outlook for the EU budgets for 2007-2013 and shows how they could promote economic and social dynamism in the Union, and thus contribute to achieving the targets set at Lisbon.

Revue

Géopolitique - Société, modes de vie

The Lisbon agenda at the halfway point. France Measured against the Lisbon Agenda: Could do Better

European issues have been in the headlines in France in recent months because of the debate about the European Constitution to be voted on in a referendum at the end of May. Rarely has public opinion been so strongly aroused in the discussions leading up to a vote. Yet while this is an encouraging sign that people are prepared to re-engage with matters of public concern, it is a shame that the debates have too often neglected the fundamental questions such as the general direction that the European Union should take with regard to economic and social policies between now and 2010.
In March 2000, when the European Council met in Lisbon, the EU heads of state and government adopted a broad policy programme that set ambitious goals for the Union between now and 2010. This programme, labelled the "Lisbon agenda", aims to make the EU "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world" by 2010, with a wide range of goals (some with specific figures attached) in areas as diverse as the economy, employment, the environment, social cohesion, etc.
What progress has been made by the halfway point, in 2005? Are the aims likely to be achieved? What are the prospects for the EU reaching its goal?
To find answers to these questions, Futuribles asked various experts on or involved in European matters to assess progress on the Lisbon agenda at the halfway stage. Elvire Fabry and Gilbert Cette outline the agenda and the main objectives that it sets for member states, then Frédéric Allemand makes a comparative evaluation of how well different member states (including France) have performed relative to the agenda's specific targets. He reckons that, so far, the results are mixed. Jean Pisani-Ferry discusses how the Maastricht criteria have been relaxed for member countries that have made a determined effort to undertake structural reforms or to invest in research and development. Lastly, Marjorie Jouen looks at the outlook for the EU budgets for 2007-2013 and shows how they could promote economic and social dynamism in the Union, and thus contribute to achieving the targets set at Lisbon.

Revue

Géopolitique

Gwadar or Beijing's "String of Pearls" Strategy

Not only does China cover a vast area (more than 9.5 million km2), the country has rarely exhibited any expansionist impulses. However, this might change, as Rémi Perelman argues here, because of its growing need for raw materials, and in particular energy, for which it depends heavily on foreign suppliers.
In order to strengthen its supply lines, China is establishing footholds abroad, especially in Burma and Pakistan. This diplomatic strategy, which Pentagon experts call the "string of pearls", indicates the clearsightedness of the Chinese and their readiness to do all they can to safeguard the basis of the country's economic growth. This new attitude is worrying for the United States, which is doing much the same thing in the region, for similar reasons.

Revue

Géopolitique

Tensions between China and Taiwan: Brinkmanship, a Tactical Squabble or a Valuable Ambiguity?

Since the end of 2004, when elections brought a party explicitly in favour of independence from China into the governing coalition in Taiwan, the relations between China and Taiwan have regularly been in the news. The commentators are anxious about the growing tension between the two governments and the risks of open conflict.
In this article Rémi Perelman recalls the background and the key phases in the relationship between China and Taiwan. He sets out who the protagonists are and what position each takes, from maintaining the status quo via the threat of invading the island to declaring Taiwan's independence. He also makes clear what support the Taiwanese government might expect, including from abroad - in particular, would the United States really risk conflict with China if matters deteriorate? Finally, Rémi Perelman offers several scenarios for possible developments between 2006 and 2020, stressing nonetheless how little it would be in China's interest, from the point of view of its economic growth, to enter into a period of political upheaval.

Chapitre Géopolitique

Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.