Entreprises, travail

Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)

CR table ronde

Entreprises, travail

Pacte pour la compétitivité de l’industrie française

Louis Gallois, commissaire général à l’Investissement, ancien président de la SNCF, ancien président directeur général d’EADS, et fondateur de la « Fabrique de l’industrie », a remis au Premier ministre français, Jean-Marc Ayrault, le 5 novembre 2012, un rapport très attendu sur la compétitivité de l’industrie française. Son rapport, Pacte pour la compétitivité de l’industrie française, constitue un véritable plan pour relancer la politique industrielle, et formule 22 propositions visant à redynamiser le tissu industriel français et ...

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Note de veille

Entreprises, travail

Demain, tous autoproducteurs ?

L’industrie est morte, vive l’industrie ? Si l’on en croit Chris Anderson, spécialiste de l’économie numérique et auteur de la théorie de la longue traîne, l’industrie serait à l’aube d’une nouvelle révolution, grâce à l’essor de la microproduction. Dans son dernier livre, Makers (producteurs) [1], il rappelle comment le Web a permis de démocratiser la production de contenu par les individus (textes, musique, vidéo...) et ainsi de donner lieu à une « longue traîne ...

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Revue

Entreprises, travail

A Constructive Vision of Businesses: On Freddy Sarfati’s “L’Entreprise autrement”

As Hubert Landier pointed out in his article on disengagement at work, published in the November issue of Futuribles, the classical business management model looks increasingly limited and needs to be challenged. The motivation and well-being of staff is at issue here, but also the smooth operation and economic profitability of companies.

Dominique Méda’s review of Freddy Sarfati’s book proposing a new way of operating within companies provides striking confirmation of this. In L’Entreprise autrement (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2010), Freddy Sarfati, a “self-made man” who set up his own business some 40 years ago, shows how companies have become “toxic” through the surveillance and mistrust of their own employees and through slavish compliance to financial diktat. Drawing on his personal experience, he shows that things can be very different and that a humanistic enterprise, operating with complete trust in its employees and in a close understanding with them, has every chance of succeeding as well, if not better than, others. This is a management lesson we hear too seldom, yet which ought to be widely disseminated among CEOs and HR managers in Western societies.

Artisans du futur

Entreprises, travail - Territoires, réseaux

“Terre de liens”: The Green Shoots of Organic Growing

For almost a year now, Futuribles journal has been opening its columns to organizations or individuals who are real actors in the economic and social field, initiators of constructive or innovative approaches conducing to the common good. Through the “Actors’ Words” rubric and, from this issue onwards the “Makers of the Future” column, these actors provide evidence of what can really be done to progress towards a future that is chosen rather than imposed. This month, Marthe de La Taille-Rivero presents the work of the “Terre de liens” association, which provides support for project developers wishing to acquire land in rural or commuter-belt areas and encourages the creation of activities that are ecologically responsible and promote social solidarity. After reminding us of the conditions in which the association emerged, she outlines the legal and financial instruments that have enabled this staunchly apolitical association to strengthen its base in France and extend its action for greater solidarity in the countryside, for new forms of territorial planning and for the spread of environmentally friendly agriculture.

Analyse prospective

Entreprises, travail - Société, modes de vie

L’autonomie dans le travail

Le sentiment pour l’individu de disposer de sa liberté de décision est aujourd’hui une attente forte, et pour une part une condition de son bonheur. Cette attente est particulièrement forte dans le domaine du travail, dans toutes les générations, où elle traduit la montée des valeurs d’individualisation. Les enquêtes sur les valeurs montrent nettement que cette attente a augmenté depuis une trentaine d’années, et il est probable qu’elle va avoir tendance à s’imposer de ...

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Revue

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail

The “Bottom of the Pyramid”: A Market of Four Billion People

“The forgotten men at the bottom of the pyramid”, to whom Franklin Roosevelt referred in April 1932 at the beginning of the Great Depression –and who were simply the American victims of the grave economic crisis of the 1930s– have come in for more thorough study over the last 10 years or so. The expression “bottom of the pyramid” now refers more broadly to the poorest individuals on the planet. The statistical definition varies a little, depending on the analysis applied and data employed, but those concerned are generally taken to earn little more than 5-10 US dollars per day. They are found for the most part in the developing and emerging countries and, to judge by Jean-Michel Huet’s analysis here, there are some four billion of them living on less than seven US dollars a day. Four billion people who have the same basic needs as everyone else –food, drink, lighting etc.– but who are barely of any interest to private companies, given their low degree of creditworthiness.

This is very probably a strategic error. As Jean-Michel Huet shows (after an initial presentation of this segment of the population), it is entirely possible for a company to meet the needs of groups at the bottom of the pyramid, while still remaining profitable. Huet gives details of three economic models that have proved successful in this area (the direct model, the innovation model and the public-private partnership), based on various examples in the fields of access to water, telephones etc. and on the experiences of pioneering companies (Schneider, Veolia, Danone etc.). Provided the approaches are conceived and carried out from a win-win standpoint as part of a genuine long-term strategy, targeting groups at the bottom of the income pyramid affords a real commercial opportunity for private companies and, moreover, plays a real part in improving the living conditions of those individuals.

Note de veille

Entreprises, travail

Le commerce interentreprises, un secteur en transformation ?

En 2008, en France, le commerce interentreprises [1], également appelé « commerce de gros » ou « activité de négoce », a généré 46,1 % de la valeur ajoutée de l’ensemble du commerce [2] (contre 31,9 % en 1985) : sur la période 1994-2008, le taux de croissance annuel moyen de la valeur ajoutée du commerce interentreprises était de 3 %, contre 2 % pour l’ensemble du commerce français. Cette forte croissance du secteur peut paraître surprenante dans la mesure où la désintermédiation des échanges ...

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Actualité du futur

Entreprises, travail

Le secteur de la vente au détail dans 10 ans

Les équipes d’analystes de The Economist (Economist Intelligence Unit) se sont penchés sur l’état de la vente et du commerce de détail dans 10 ans, en 2022 dans une courte étude « Retail 2022 ». Ce paysage change avec une grande rapidité : comme ils le rappellent, si on regarde dans le rétroviseur, il y a 10 ans, un téléphone mobile ne permettait que de téléphoner, Amazon devenait seulement rentable et Facebook n’existait tout simplement pas. Première hypothèse du document ...

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Revue

Entreprises, travail

Social Irritants and Disengagement at Work: From the Prevention of Psycho-Social Risks to the Assessment of Companies’ Contributions to Better Living

The serious economic crisis Europe is undergoing is accompanied, particularly in France, by a great many company closures and the attendant raft of redundancies. In this context, social relations within vulnerable companies are more than a little strained. Reading this article by Hubert Landier, it is clear things are the same in most organizations, whether or not they are in good shape economically, for though workplace conflict has fallen off considerably in the last 30 years, it has given way to a phenomenon no less generally harmful: the disengagement of employees from their work or from their firms.

Hubert Landier shows here what that disengagement consists in (lateness, errors, poor workmanship, damage to equipment, stress, absenteeism etc.) and what its costs are for both the company and the employee. He then turns to the factors underlying this disengagement: the increase in the number of “social irritants” that have as much to do with the relations and behaviour within the company as with the methods of management or the perceptions the different parties have of them –in other words, far more with immaterial factors than with pay or working hours. Here Landier stresses the essential role management plays in the development of disengagement, but also the role it can play in remotivating employees. He reminds us, in passing, of the positive impact of workers’ well-being on the economic performance of companies and, going even further, takes the view that once companies have understood the importance of developing well-being at work, they will take the further step and, by listening to their employees, contribute to “better living in the community.”

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Territoires, réseaux

The Counterfeiting of Hazardous Products on the Internet

More than nine million counterfeit products were seized by the French customs in 2011, among which were a million and a half articles seized from carriers of express goods –in other words, articles from individual Internet orders. This latter figure attests to an expanding phenomenon which is as yet difficult to measure precisely, but could turn out to have serious consequences both for consumers and for certain sectors of the economy: namely, the growing distribution of counterfeit products –particularly, hazardous products– by way of the Internet.

Franck Guarnieri and Éric Przyswa present the main issues here, first recalling the particular context that the Internet represents for counterfeiters, together with the reality of the phenomenon and the inherent dangers. They also stress the difficulty of fighting counterfeit goods on the Internet at the international level, because debate and action are too targeted on the legal aspects (intellectual property in particular) or deal with cybercriminality without really confronting counterfeiting, and are based on a loose conglomeration of institutions that co-operate very little with one another. In this context, and given the prospects they foresee for the “counterfeiting/Internet” combination in the years to 2020, Guarnieri and Przyswa have formulated a number of recommendations for solving the problem. These consist, among other things, in recognizing the increasing overlap between the real and virtual worlds and the difficulty of regulating trade on the Internet. It is, they argue, through organizing “resilience” by way of good security strategies and a cooperative logic that the individuals, companies and institutions concerned will be able to confront the distribution of counterfeit products on the Internet, it being out of the question to eliminate them once and for all.

Document étude

Entreprises, travail - Société, modes de vie

Les circuits courts alimentaires

Les circuits courts alimentaires constituent le mode de commercialisation le plus ancien des aliments, soit directement sur le lieu de production, soit sur des marchés. Mais ces circuits se sont progressivement « allongés », à mesure que le nombre d’intermédiaires entre le producteur et le consommateur augmentait. Aujourd’hui, les circuits courts sont minoritaires : en 2007, les ménages français ont réalisé 70 % de leurs achats alimentaires dans des grandes surfaces, contre 6,5 % pour les achats sur les marchés ou aux ...

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Bibliography

Entreprises, travail

L’Entreprise de 2020

La fondation Cigref a publié dans un ouvrage les premiers résultats de son programme de recherche sur l’entreprise en 2020. Ce programme est composé de plusieurs projets de recherche portant sur les systèmes d’information, les modèles d’affaires, l’organisation, les ressources humaines, les pratiques émergentes. Les résultats de chacun de ces projets ont été publiés au fur et à mesure sous forme de bulletins, Les Essentiels, qui sont rassemblés dans ce rapport. Le projet vise à mettre ...

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Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail

Contrat d’étude prospective « commerce interentreprises »

Dans ce rapport, le Crédoc s’intéresse au commerce interentreprises, également appelé « commerce de gros ». En 2008, ce secteur a généré 4,7 % du total de la valeur ajoutée nationale et a représenté 46 % de la valeur ajoutée de l’ensemble du commerce, contre 31,9 % en 1985. Cette augmentation s’explique par l’élargissement de la palette des prestations prises en charge par les négociants : sur les 10 dernières années, les activités de négoce ont eu une capacité à ...

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Revue

Entreprises, travail - Société, modes de vie

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Situation and Trends

The motor industry has been in crisis for several years now, particularly in France, and despite regular support from the public authorities, the trend shows little sign of reversing. If we add in the economic crisis, the rise in fossil fuel prices and the need to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions so as not to aggravate climate change, the future for the classic thermal-engine vehicle does not look particularly bright. Given this context, what are the alternatives?

Following an initial article in April 2009 aimed at assessing the question, Pierre Bonnaure studies this strategic industry once again and presents the developments that have occurred in the interim where electric and hybrid vehicles are concerned, both on the part of the automobile companies and among the consumers and public authorities in various countries. He shows that, of these two major options that are likely to provide an alternative to the traditional types of vehicle, it is the latter which seems to be making headway and is, in his view, currently the most apposite, at least in these early years. For if the long-term aim is to have our societies evolve towards ways of life free of oil use or carbon dioxide emissions, then the transition period is likely to be long and the adaptation of infrastructures and industries expensive. Hence the advantage, for the motor industry, of the hybrid option, which enables such a transition to be implemented rather more gently.

Note de veille

Entreprises, travail - Société, modes de vie

Le renouveau du commerce de proximité

On le croyait condamné, face à la concurrence des hypermarchés, des centres commerciaux et du commerce en ligne. Pourtant, le commerce de proximité est toujours présent en France, et connaîtrait même une deuxième vie depuis quelques années, grâce à l’apparition de nouvelles offres et aux nouvelles attentes des consommateurs. L’INSEE (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques) comptabilisait, en 2008, 600 000 commerces de proximité, sur un total de 830 000 commerces 1. Leur nombre a ...

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Revue

Entreprises, travail

The Future of the Global Food System: An Attempt at a Foresight Study to 2050

According to the median variant of the latest projections of the United Nations Population Division, the world could have two billion more inhabitants by 2050. In other words, world population could stand at nine billion. Knowing that even today 15% of the global population (a billion people) are underfed, we can see the scale of the challenge that lies before us when it comes to feeding the world. Jean-Louis Rastoin and Gérard Ghersi, fully conversant with the mechanisms of the global food system, offer to shed light on this challenge here with the aid of a foresight study on the global food system to 2050.
They begin by outlining the tertiarized agro-industrial food system, which is tending to spread across the entire planet as a result of the mass consumption of increasingly similar products. It is a system based on a technical/economic model of intensive supply that is increasingly financialized, concentrated and globalized. Building on this observation and a certain number of key variables (demographic and economic growth, climate change, pressure on land etc.), Rastoin and Ghersi propose two contrasting scenarios for the period to 2050: the continuity scenario, in which the large-scale agro-industrial system intensifies, and the discontinuity scenario, which offers an alternative model based on a locally-sourced food system. They examine these two scenarios in terms of four sustainable development criteria (economic performance, ecological conservation, social fairness and participatory governance) and put rough figures to the two scenarios, from which it emerges that both can satisfy world food needs over the period under review. The difference relates, among other things, to the respect for sustainable development criteria, global food diversity etc., which are not promoted to any great degree in the currently prevalent scenario. However, if the alternative scenario is to become reality, it will be necessary to mobilize all the stakeholders, beginning with the public authorities, to “devise and promote an appropriate food policy that does not currently exist in any country in the world.”

Actualité du futur

Entreprises, travail

Le marché du travail en 2025

Dans cet article de la revue Futures, Sally Khallash et Martin Kruse estiment que le marché du travail se trouve actuellement dans une période de transition, marquée par de nouvelles opportunités technologiques (télétravail) et la féminisation de la main-d’œuvre, y compris aux postes à responsabilité. Les conséquences de ces changements devraient selon eux affecter l’organisation future du travail et le concept d’équilibre vie professionnelle / vie privée. Ils imaginent deux scénarios pour l’avenir de cet équilibre fragile ...

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Revue

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail

Work and Employment in France in 20 Years’ Time

A year ago, the Centre d’analyse stratégique (CAS: Centre for Strategic Analysis) published a very densely-argued report on the way work and employment will develop in France over the next 20 years, some 16 years after a similar study carried out by Jean Boissonnat for the CAS’s forerunner, the Commissariat général du Plan (General Planning Commission). However, between 1995 and 2011 the context has changed substantially and, though there has been one crisis after another, the revolution produced by the rise of the digital technologies has, among other factors, considerably modified working conditions.

Hugues de Balathier Lantage, who had overall charge of the 2011 Report, presents the main lessons to be learned from it here, while taking account of recent developments in the field of work and employment. He begins by recalling the changes that have occurred in this field (transformation of the structure of employment, dynamic labour markets but persistent unemployment, important changes in the business environment etc.) and goes on to lay out the approach adopted, which consists in taking concrete account of the realities of work (motivations, forms, organization, workplaces and working hours). He then presents the two scenarios accepted by the CAS for the years to 2030 (‘Technological and Societal Acceleration” and “Re-balancing and Voluntarism of the Actors”), before picking out some essential issues for the future with regard to the mobilization of actors, the structuring of employment policies on different time-scales, occupational mobility, career security etc. This is all material that will be particularly useful for future debates on employment policy and ways of reducing the unemployment rate in France.

Chapitre Entreprises, travail

Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.