Entreprises, travail

Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)

Bibliography

Entreprises, travail

World Robotics 2004

Le rapport annuel de la Commission économique des Nations unies (UNECE) sur la place de la robotique dans le monde, tant industriel que domestique, nous donne quelques chiffres éloquents sur l'avenir du robot à la maison. Aujourd'hui, près de 610 000 robots de service sont en fonctionnement, principalement des aspirateurs et des tondeuses. L'ONU estime qu'entre 2004 et 2007, leur nombre devrait augmenter de 4 millions, soit une progression de 655 %. Côté professionnel, les robots médicaux ...

(102 more words)

Bibliography

Entreprises, travail - Géopolitique

Le Désordre du monde. Les grands axes de l’avenir

Au Global Business Policy Council qu'il a fondé au sein d'A.T. Kearney, l'auteur publie annuellement l'« indice de confiance », une étude approfondie des conditions d'investissement dans près de 60 pays. Cette approche « risque pays » inspire ce livre, qui propose un cadre permettant d'identifier les changements extérieurs et quelques scénarios illustrant la façon dont l'environnement économique mondial pourrait évoluer. La première partie de l'ouvrage offre un aperçu de l'avenir au travers du ...

(976 more words)

Futurs d'antan

Entreprises, travail

The 20th Century as Seen by Albert Robida in 1882: a Re-reading of his Vingtième Siècle Occasioned by its Translation into English (Futures of yesteryear)

Albert Robida's 1882 novel Le Vingtième Siècle, roman d'une Parisienne d'après-demain is well known in French-speaking countries but has only just been translated into English for the first time - The Twentieth Century, translated with commentary by Philip Willems (Early Classics of Science Fiction, series editor Arthur B. Evans), Middletown (Connecticut): Wesleyan University Press, 2004, 397 pp. Bernard Cazes gives a brief outline of this utopian novel, stressing in particular the two main forces that Robida thought would drive change in the 20th century: changing moral standards (especially with regard to the position of women) and technical progress. Lastly Cazes reads between the lines to decipher what Robida foresaw for international relations in his novel.

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Institutions - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Pour une politique de recherche

Readers of Futuribles are kept abreast of the current debates about the policy (or lack of it) with regard to research and development in France, in part because of the amount of space we have devoted to this matter in the journal.
We publish here the point of view of an eminent researcher, Pierre Piganiol, who was the first head of the Délégation générale à la recherche scientifique et technique (DGRST) which, following the famous meeting in Caen (1956), was the first body to implement the R&D policy of the Gaullist era - which it did, moreover, in magisterial fashion.
Pierre Piganiol expresses his amazement that the alarm calls about the inadequacy of French research efforts have not apparently been either heard or understood. He then reminds us of the ultimate purpose of research (and the various types of research) and the major role that the state should play in co-ordinating efforts, not only with regard to the research that it finances but also to privately funded research.
He stresses that this role of orchestrating research means putting considerable effort into foresight in order to make choices, as far as possible, in the light of the country's future needs. He says here, pithily, what others in the debate put more pompously in terms of the tensions between technology push and social needs (or bottom-up approach).
Finally, Pierre Piganiol offers some judicious thoughts as to the ways that this research policy might ideally be conducted.
Those who have worked with him will not be surprised that he lays so much emphasis on the need to make a "reasoned analysis of the present state of knowledge and research", of what he calls the "scientific climate" (conjoncture scientifique). It is indeed strange that, despite his best efforts, nothing of the sort has ever been implemented...

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Géopolitique

Promouvoir la petite entreprise en Europe

Small and medium-sized firms are a key element in the European economy: by the EU definition (0-250 employees), they make up 99.8% of all businesses (more than 93% of them employ fewer than 10 people), i.e. 65.8% of all employment. Yet the public authorities offer them little support, largely because the authorities operate on a very different scale to small firms.
André Lebeau argues that it is possible to change this state of affairs, for instance by learning from the American experience. Despite its ultra-free market stance, the United States has in fact put in place a wide range of public support for small businesses, especially via tenders and contracts to supply federal agencies. These measures have existed for over 50 years (Small Business Act, 1953) and are regularly updated.
While identical measures cannot be applied to small firms in the EU, they could serve to inspire support for this key element in the European economy. André Lebeau suggests how this might be done, proposing the launch of pilot projects, starting with ones in the framework of the European space programme, a sector that he knows well.

Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail

Surviving Uncertainty

Ce numéro spécial de la revue Development s'ouvre sur un entretien avec Kees van Heijden et Napier Collyns, deux pionniers de la méthode des scénarios du groupe Royal Dutch Shell, qui relatent le moment où le monde a cessé d'apparaître comme contrôlable et prévisible, et où ils se sont aperçus que la planification stratégique ne pouvait plus reposer uniquement sur des projections économiques. Francisco Sagasti retrace ensuite l'histoire de la diffusion de la pensée prospective en Amérique ...

(259 more words)

Chapitre Entreprises, travail

Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.