Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)
En 2008, en France, le commerce interentreprises , également appelé « commerce de gros » ou « activité de négoce », a généré 46,1 % de la valeur ajoutée de l’ensemble du commerce  (contre 31,9 % en 1985) : sur la période 1994-2008, le taux de croissance annuel moyen de la valeur ajoutée du commerce interentreprises était de 3 %, contre 2 % pour l’ensemble du commerce français. Cette forte croissance du secteur peut paraître surprenante dans la mesure où la désintermédiation des échanges ...
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Les équipes d’analystes de The Economist (Economist Intelligence Unit) se sont penchés sur l’état de la vente et du commerce de détail dans 10 ans, en 2022 dans une courte étude « Retail 2022 ». Ce paysage change avec une grande rapidité : comme ils le rappellent, si on regarde dans le rétroviseur, il y a 10 ans, un téléphone mobile ne permettait que de téléphoner, Amazon devenait seulement rentable et Facebook n’existait tout simplement pas. Première hypothèse du document ...
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The serious economic crisis Europe is undergoing is accompanied, particularly in France, by a great many company closures and the attendant raft of redundancies. In this context, social relations within vulnerable companies are more than a little strained. Reading this article by Hubert Landier, it is clear things are the same in most organizations, whether or not they are in good shape economically, for though workplace conflict has fallen off considerably in the last 30 years, it has given way to a phenomenon no less generally harmful: the disengagement of employees from their work or from their firms.
Hubert Landier shows here what that disengagement consists in (lateness, errors, poor workmanship, damage to equipment, stress, absenteeism etc.) and what its costs are for both the company and the employee. He then turns to the factors underlying this disengagement: the increase in the number of “social irritants” that have as much to do with the relations and behaviour within the company as with the methods of management or the perceptions the different parties have of them –in other words, far more with immaterial factors than with pay or working hours. Here Landier stresses the essential role management plays in the development of disengagement, but also the role it can play in remotivating employees. He reminds us, in passing, of the positive impact of workers’ well-being on the economic performance of companies and, going even further, takes the view that once companies have understood the importance of developing well-being at work, they will take the further step and, by listening to their employees, contribute to “better living in the community.”
More than nine million counterfeit products were seized by the French customs in 2011, among which were a million and a half articles seized from carriers of express goods –in other words, articles from individual Internet orders. This latter figure attests to an expanding phenomenon which is as yet difficult to measure precisely, but could turn out to have serious consequences both for consumers and for certain sectors of the economy: namely, the growing distribution of counterfeit products –particularly, hazardous products– by way of the Internet.
Franck Guarnieri and Éric Przyswa present the main issues here, first recalling the particular context that the Internet represents for counterfeiters, together with the reality of the phenomenon and the inherent dangers. They also stress the difficulty of fighting counterfeit goods on the Internet at the international level, because debate and action are too targeted on the legal aspects (intellectual property in particular) or deal with cybercriminality without really confronting counterfeiting, and are based on a loose conglomeration of institutions that co-operate very little with one another. In this context, and given the prospects they foresee for the “counterfeiting/Internet” combination in the years to 2020, Guarnieri and Przyswa have formulated a number of recommendations for solving the problem. These consist, among other things, in recognizing the increasing overlap between the real and virtual worlds and the difficulty of regulating trade on the Internet. It is, they argue, through organizing “resilience” by way of good security strategies and a cooperative logic that the individuals, companies and institutions concerned will be able to confront the distribution of counterfeit products on the Internet, it being out of the question to eliminate them once and for all.
Les circuits courts alimentaires constituent le mode de commercialisation le plus ancien des aliments, soit directement sur le lieu de production, soit sur des marchés. Mais ces circuits se sont progressivement « allongés », à mesure que le nombre d’intermédiaires entre le producteur et le consommateur augmentait. Aujourd’hui, les circuits courts sont minoritaires : en 2007, les ménages français ont réalisé 70 % de leurs achats alimentaires dans des grandes surfaces, contre 6,5 % pour les achats sur les marchés ou aux ...
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La fondation Cigref a publié dans un ouvrage les premiers résultats de son programme de recherche sur l’entreprise en 2020. Ce programme est composé de plusieurs projets de recherche portant sur les systèmes d’information, les modèles d’affaires, l’organisation, les ressources humaines, les pratiques émergentes. Les résultats de chacun de ces projets ont été publiés au fur et à mesure sous forme de bulletins, Les Essentiels, qui sont rassemblés dans ce rapport. Le projet vise à mettre ...
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Dans ce rapport, le Crédoc s’intéresse au commerce interentreprises, également appelé « commerce de gros ». En 2008, ce secteur a généré 4,7 % du total de la valeur ajoutée nationale et a représenté 46 % de la valeur ajoutée de l’ensemble du commerce, contre 31,9 % en 1985. Cette augmentation s’explique par l’élargissement de la palette des prestations prises en charge par les négociants : sur les 10 dernières années, les activités de négoce ont eu une capacité à ...
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The motor industry has been in crisis for several years now, particularly in France, and despite regular support from the public authorities, the trend shows little sign of reversing. If we add in the economic crisis, the rise in fossil fuel prices and the need to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions so as not to aggravate climate change, the future for the classic thermal-engine vehicle does not look particularly bright. Given this context, what are the alternatives?
Following an initial article in April 2009 aimed at assessing the question, Pierre Bonnaure studies this strategic industry once again and presents the developments that have occurred in the interim where electric and hybrid vehicles are concerned, both on the part of the automobile companies and among the consumers and public authorities in various countries. He shows that, of these two major options that are likely to provide an alternative to the traditional types of vehicle, it is the latter which seems to be making headway and is, in his view, currently the most apposite, at least in these early years. For if the long-term aim is to have our societies evolve towards ways of life free of oil use or carbon dioxide emissions, then the transition period is likely to be long and the adaptation of infrastructures and industries expensive. Hence the advantage, for the motor industry, of the hybrid option, which enables such a transition to be implemented rather more gently.
On le croyait condamné, face à la concurrence des hypermarchés, des centres commerciaux et du commerce en ligne. Pourtant, le commerce de proximité est toujours présent en France, et connaîtrait même une deuxième vie depuis quelques années, grâce à l’apparition de nouvelles offres et aux nouvelles attentes des consommateurs. L’INSEE (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques) comptabilisait, en 2008, 600 000 commerces de proximité, sur un total de 830 000 commerces 1. Leur nombre a ...
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According to the median variant of the latest projections of the United Nations Population Division, the world could have two billion more inhabitants by 2050. In other words, world population could stand at nine billion. Knowing that even today 15% of the global population (a billion people) are underfed, we can see the scale of the challenge that lies before us when it comes to feeding the world. Jean-Louis Rastoin and Gérard Ghersi, fully conversant with the mechanisms of the global food system, offer to shed light on this challenge here with the aid of a foresight study on the global food system to 2050.
They begin by outlining the tertiarized agro-industrial food system, which is tending to spread across the entire planet as a result of the mass consumption of increasingly similar products. It is a system based on a technical/economic model of intensive supply that is increasingly financialized, concentrated and globalized. Building on this observation and a certain number of key variables (demographic and economic growth, climate change, pressure on land etc.), Rastoin and Ghersi propose two contrasting scenarios for the period to 2050: the continuity scenario, in which the large-scale agro-industrial system intensifies, and the discontinuity scenario, which offers an alternative model based on a locally-sourced food system. They examine these two scenarios in terms of four sustainable development criteria (economic performance, ecological conservation, social fairness and participatory governance) and put rough figures to the two scenarios, from which it emerges that both can satisfy world food needs over the period under review. The difference relates, among other things, to the respect for sustainable development criteria, global food diversity etc., which are not promoted to any great degree in the currently prevalent scenario. However, if the alternative scenario is to become reality, it will be necessary to mobilize all the stakeholders, beginning with the public authorities, to “devise and promote an appropriate food policy that does not currently exist in any country in the world.”
Dans cet article de la revue Futures, Sally Khallash et Martin Kruse estiment que le marché du travail se trouve actuellement dans une période de transition, marquée par de nouvelles opportunités technologiques (télétravail) et la féminisation de la main-d’œuvre, y compris aux postes à responsabilité. Les conséquences de ces changements devraient selon eux affecter l’organisation future du travail et le concept d’équilibre vie professionnelle / vie privée. Ils imaginent deux scénarios pour l’avenir de cet équilibre fragile ...
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A year ago, the Centre d’analyse stratégique (CAS: Centre for Strategic Analysis) published a very densely-argued report on the way work and employment will develop in France over the next 20 years, some 16 years after a similar study carried out by Jean Boissonnat for the CAS’s forerunner, the Commissariat général du Plan (General Planning Commission). However, between 1995 and 2011 the context has changed substantially and, though there has been one crisis after another, the revolution produced by the rise of the digital technologies has, among other factors, considerably modified working conditions.
Hugues de Balathier Lantage, who had overall charge of the 2011 Report, presents the main lessons to be learned from it here, while taking account of recent developments in the field of work and employment. He begins by recalling the changes that have occurred in this field (transformation of the structure of employment, dynamic labour markets but persistent unemployment, important changes in the business environment etc.) and goes on to lay out the approach adopted, which consists in taking concrete account of the realities of work (motivations, forms, organization, workplaces and working hours). He then presents the two scenarios accepted by the CAS for the years to 2030 (‘Technological and Societal Acceleration” and “Re-balancing and Voluntarism of the Actors”), before picking out some essential issues for the future with regard to the mobilization of actors, the structuring of employment policies on different time-scales, occupational mobility, career security etc. This is all material that will be particularly useful for future debates on employment policy and ways of reducing the unemployment rate in France.
Selon l’OCDE (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques), la mauvaise santé mentale des salariés coûte cher (taux de chômage plus élevé, augmentation des pensions d’invalidité, départs à la retraite anticipés, absentéisme plus important, baisse de productivité, etc.) Même si, aujourd’hui, les liens de causalité entre emploi et santé mentale demeurent flous, il semblerait que des conditions de travail non satisfaisantes puissent conduire à une aggravation voire à l’apparition de troubles mentaux. Selon Julien Pelletier, les ...
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Depuis 2009, en France, 880 entreprises industrielles ont fermé leurs portes et 100 000 emplois ont été supprimés, creusant un peu plus le déficit commercial français aux alentours de 51 milliards d’euros. Pierre Gattaz a livré quelques pistes de réflexion sur l’avenir de l’emploi et de l’industrie en France, fort de son expérience de chef d’entreprise chez Radiall depuis 1992 et de son implication dans la FIEEC, le GFI et la Fabrique de l’industrie.
Starting out from reality and then projecting itself into futuristic universes, science fiction, in both literary and cinematic form, allows us to dream and to have fantasies or nightmares about what the future holds in store. In many works of science fiction, technologies and the perspectives for their application play a key role. The nanotechnologies, with miniaturization playing its part here, offer even greater possibilities for writers and directors to develop their visions of the future. At the same time, scientist, corporations, governments and military institutions are investing time, energy and substantial amounts of money in these nanotechnologies. They themselves are constructing visions of what they may enable us to do in the future, and trying to bring these to fruition.
How are these two types of representation related? This is the issue Bernard Kahane ponders in this article. Drawing on various emblematic novels and films, he begins by showing how science fiction depicts nanotechnologies, before outlining the scientific and technical logics that underlie them. Kahane then turns more precisely to the impact they might have in the field of security and defence (future conflicts, armaments, combatants etc.). Lastly, he studies the specific features of the future visions of, on the one hand, science fiction writers and filmmakers and, on the other, of the economic and social actors involved in the emergence of the nanotechnologies, together with their influence on each other. Unlike the writers, who operate merely at the level of narration, those engaged in nanotechnology research and production are, he argues, “narr-actors” who manipulate, combine and intermingle narration and action in pursuit of their ends.
As part of the “Actors’ Words” series of articles launched by Futuribles in 2012, Marthe de La Taille-Rivero offers a stimulating account of a social-innovation venture launched in the mid-2000s by a highly motivated entrepreneur: the building of communal housing for people disabled as a result of head injury. She describes the career-path of Laurent de Cherisey, prime mover both in this particular project and in cocreating the association Simon de Cyrène (Simon of Cyrene) that carried it out, as well as the many formalities that had to be gone through to see it realized – including, in the end, a little “helping hand” from fate in the form of the success of the film Intouchables (Untouchables), which handed over part of its takings to the association. By giving back to these disabled people the opportunity of finding a social life within a town – in contact with other individuals, both disabled and able-bodied, who share housing with them – the association supports them towards potential reintegration, responds to their families’ concerns and, through its activity, promotes other similar initiatives elsewhere in France.
In this special issue of Futuribles devoted to genetically modified organisms, Marcel Kuntz and Agnès Ricroch offer a review of the situation regarding biotechnological plants and their socio-economic prospects. After reminding us of the agricultural (and food) challenges our planet will face by the middle of the century, they outline the possible contributions of transgenics to overcoming them (resistance to various kinds of stress, improvement of yields, nutritional contributions), particularly in the developing countries. They go on to stress the advantages of transgenics in the fields of industry (agrofuels) and pharmaceuticals (biosynthesis of proteins and enzymes for therapeutic purposes).
Kuntz and Ricroch then come to a more political strand of argument: the political and regulatory constraints on the development of GMOs in Europe (and, in particular, France). They criticize, for example, the destructions carried out by certain anti-GM movements, and over-cautiousness in the political decisions and regulation that eventually led to the enduring sidelining of French and European players in the plant biotechnology sector. This situation is, in their view, highly damaging and synonymous with scientific and technical defeat. And the means for overcoming it, such as gaining the confidence of public opinion in the field through better information and publicity campaigns directed more at the benefits inherent in the technologies than the risks, have hardly been successful.
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are at the heart of important controversies in the scientific world. But the stakes go far beyond that, as is demonstrated here by Pierre-Benoit Joly. Questions of a more political nature arise, such as what vision of the world one wishes to see prevail in the future, both in the agricultural realm and in the much wider matter of the sustainable development of the planet.
Recalling, first, how regimes of innovation in the plant world have evolved over time, Joly stresses that we have moved from traditional skills and practices to an initial regime of innovation based on state agronomists and seed companies, which has itself evolved towards a “molecular, private, globalized” regime of innovation heavily encouraged by the granting, in the 1980s, of permission to patent living organisms. This has led to agricultural markets becoming tied up to a large extent by a number of major companies and to research being focussed on a small number of species and on GMOs. However, this commitment to GMOs has given rise to much criticism, involving the leaders of the “biotech oligopoly” in a crisis of legitimacy. Hence the efforts made by these parties over several years to legitimate their enthusiasm for GMOs both economically and politically.
It is to this “techno-political” work of legitimation that Pierre-Benoit Joly turns in the second part of his article. Thanks to the privatization of innovation and the globalization of activities, the big biotech multinationals are gradually winning acceptance for their view of the world, by way, among other things, of co-production of the regulation of the risks inherent in innovations (the emergence of a “soft law” lowering the level of mandatory constraint by states) and by intensive lobbying within public institutions and the establishment of “epistemic communities” (networks aimed at bending international law in their direction). Joly shows, lastly, how these players – and particularly Monsanto, which he studies more specifically here – are privatizing the notion of sustainable development in agriculture (by way of ethical charters, for example), so as to make their activities essential to its attainment. This is an “enlistment” operation that is very well described here, though it can still be countered when its workings are properly understood.
Selon un rapport de la Commission de déontologie de la fonction publique , le nombre de fonctionnaires qui cumulent leur activité principale, dans le secteur public, et une activité annexe, dans le secteur privé, est en nette augmentation. La création du statut d’auto-entrepreneur pourrait être à l’origine de cet engouement.
In this second contribution to our new Paroles d’acteurs (Actors’ Words) feature, Bertrand Collomb takes up his pen again to show us, in the light of a recent trip to China, how that country is aiming to deal with the enormous environmental challenges confronting it. Driven by an unprecedented economic boom, China has enormous energy and raw material needs and these are growing as its population is developing and increasingly catching up with Western styles of life. Though it wishes to steer clear of binding international engagements, the Chinese government has nonetheless taken stock of the seriousness of the environmental situation and, in the wake of the 2006-10 Five Year Plan, which was already sensitive to these questions, has given relatively broad consideration in its Twelfth Plan (2011-15) to the means of promoting more sustainable development within the country (reduction of CO2, emissions, energy saving, sustainable cities etc.). Bertrand Collomb here outlines the main orientations of that Twelfth Plan.
Le 19 janvier dernier, l’agence AdGENCY Experts a organisé ses premières rencontres Interférences, consacrées aux signaux faibles. Le colloque a réuni de nombreux experts de la veille, de la prospective, mais aussi des sociologues et des consultants. Une première table ronde sur la complexité croissante des sociétés et sa gestion par les entreprises, a réunit Edgar Morin (sociologue), Michel Maffesoli (directeur de la revue Sociétés) et Clara Gaymard (présidente de General Electric France). Edgar Morin a fait le constat ...
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Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.