Éducation

Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)

Bibliography

Éducation

L’École de demain. Réseaux d’innovation : Vers de nouveaux modèles de gestion des écoles et des systèmes

On associe de plus en plus souvent les pays de l'OCDE à des « sociétés en réseau ». Cette évolution conduit inévitablement à s'interroger sur le rôle des réseaux éducatifs. Dans quelle mesure ceux-ci peuvent-ils se substituer aux pesantes bureaucraties comme modes de gestion et comme sources d'innovation et de professionnalisme ? D'aucuns, comme le Professeur Michael Barber dans ce volume, prédisent l'effondrement des grands services publics, dont l'évolution est si lente. Mais si tel est le ...

(144 more words)

Bibliography

Éducation

America’s Meltdown : Why We are Losing the Skills Wars and What We Can Do About It

Alors que l'on parle de société du savoir et que les nouvelles technologies de l'information deviennent incontournables, la maladie de l'ignorance ravage les États-Unis, selon Edward Gordon. Il illustre le faible niveau de formation de la main-d'oeuvre américaine de nombreux exemples : selon une étude nationale auprès des grandes entreprises du pays, 40 % des candidats à l'embauche échouent aux tests basiques de mathématiques ; 58 % des diplômés du supérieur ne comprennent pas le sens d'un article ...

(209 more words)

Bibliography

Éducation

Vers un enseignement secondaire de masse (1985-2001) in Données sociales, 2002-2003

La démocratisation de l'enseignement secondaire, menée de manière volontaire par l'Éducation nationale depuis le milieu des années quatre-vingt, a eu des résultats significatifs. Ainsi, en 2001, 70 % des jeunes générations vont jusqu'en classe terminale contre 35 % en 1985, et 38 % d'entre elles sortent de formation initiale avec un diplôme de l'enseignement supérieur contre 15 % en 1980. Ces progrès reposent sur une généralisation du premier cycle - 97 % des jeunes générations atteignent désormais une classe de troisième ...

(66 more words)

Revue

Éducation

Une évaluation internationale des acquis des élèves

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is one of OECD's programmes undertaking comparative evaluations of education systems in member countries. PISA sets out to assess their overall efficiency, relative both to other countries and to certain criteria considered to be essential to their pupils' future. The assessment looks not at a particular level of schooling, but at 15 year olds in different countries, regardless of their class year. Using a carefully designed questionnaire, PISA assesses the students' level of competence (and not strictly their knowledge) in three areas -understanding of the written word, mathematics and science. The aim is to monitor both their knowledge and their ability to apply it in practice in their daily lives.
Jean-Luc Heller and Georges Lemaître present here the methods and results of the assessments carried out by PISA in 2000. Finland comes out top; France is near the OECD average for reading comprehension and science, but above the average for mathematics. France therefore has roughly the same ranking as the USA, ahead of Germany, Italy and the Russian Federation but behind Japan, Canada and the United Kingdom.
Furthermore, PISA 2000 permits insights into how far countries have internal disparities in standards within the overall results. This reveals that the range of standards is smaller than the average in France (fewer very poor and very good students than the OECD average), in contrast to the UK and Germany. But some of the countries near the top of the league table manage to register both a high level of overall performance and small differences in standard nationally (Finland and Canada, for example).
Finally, the authors present the breakdown by sex of pupils, their social class and whether or not they are foreigners. In this way, they attempt to draw conclusions from the quality assessments for the various national education systems, and especially for France. One finding is that in France the pupil's socio-economic background has a greater influence on performance than the average for OECD countries; the authors comment that this result is somewhat unexpected. This example, like many others, highlights the value of such international comparisons: measuring perceptions of performance and of the quality of education systems against external yardsticks.

Bibliography

Éducation

« Projections du système éducatif à 10 ans »

Les projections d'effectifs scolaires dans le premier degré dépendent essentiellement du facteur démographique et, notamment, de l'estimation des naissances à venir. La DPD se base sur les derniers bilans démographiques de l'Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques pour estimer la population scolarisable des prochaines années. Le second facteur, d'effet beaucoup plus réduit, est l'évolution de la scolarisation à chaque âge, particulièrement à 2 ans et au-delà de 10 ans. Les prévisions s ...

(620 more words)

Bibliography

Éducation

« Prospective économique de l’université européenne »

En se basant sur une analyse morphologique qui consiste en un croisement bidimensionnel des agents et des fonctions du système, Emilio Fontela s'efforce de réfléchir sur l'université dans ses deux fonctions, d'enseignement et de recherche, en termes prospectifs. Il utilise ensuite la méthode des scénarios, en prenant pour cadre ceux réalisés par la cellule de prospective de la Commission européenne « Europe 2010 ». Il dégage ensuite deux scénarios exploratoires et un scénario plus « normatif » pour l'avenir de ...

(1 more words)

Bibliography

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

La Souris et le pédagogue

L'e-formation, rendue possible par les NTIC (nouvelles technologies de l'information et de la communication), suscite beaucoup d'espoirs et d'enthousiasme. Elle n'en est pourtant encore qu'au stade de l'expérimentation, et son offre reste centrée sur l'informatique, les langues et quelques savoir et savoir-faire génériques. Gérard Layole analyse sa place réelle, au travers notamment de cas d'entreprises, et relativise les idées reçues au profit d'une réflexion sur les conditions d'efficacité.

Bibliography

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Les Techniques d’information et de communication en formation. Une révolution stratégique

Les ouvrages sur l'utilisation des technologies de l'information et de la communication (NTIC) dans le domaine de l'éducation et de la formation sont évidemment très nombreux, tant paraît a priori évident l'impact que ces techniques exercent ou peuvent exercer sur le fonctionnement d'un secteur d'activités en plein essor et en pleine mutation, dans le contexte de la société et de l'économie dites de la connaissance. L'originalité, donc la valeur ajoutée, de ce ...

(160 more words)

Revue

Éducation - Société, modes de vie

Pour l’introduction de l’éthique à l’école

The teaching of morals and citizenship, which was central to French education policy from the time of Jules Ferry, has now been virtually abandoned - even though, as Christian Nique argues, schools have a major role to play in ensuring social cohesion and filling the moral vacuum created by the rise of individualism.
Nique argues that schools should not relinquish this responsibility. He ponders what the differences might be between ethics -a concept that is more acceptable today- and morals -which is based on the idea of a code of human behaviour imposed from above; he ultimately concludes that, whatever the semantic differences, society cannot live without laws, except at the risk of falling apart or becoming the victim of a "moral order" imposed by a minority...
Concerned above all to preserve the social fabric but also aware of the important ethical issues likely to face tomorrow' adults, Nique argues forcefully that schools (perhaps the last institution capable of taking on this role) should once again give high priority to the teaching of ethics, morals and citizenship, which in future will be more essential than ever.

Bibliography

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

L’Accès au savoir en ligne

Aboutissement d'une volonté d'automatisation de l'accès aux connaissances, le savoir en ligne, pour répondre aux impératifs actuels de formation, implique une double nécessité de formation technique des usagers et d'assistance par des opérateurs humains qualifiés, dont témoigne le rôle accru des médiateurs et des enseignants sur les réseaux. Or l'e-learning, en essor exponentiel depuis 1995, se heurte à deux obstacles : économique (coût des installations et de la formation des usagers) et pédagogique (sentiment d'abandon ...

(154 more words)

Bibliography

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Higher Education and Research for the European Research Area : Current Trends and Challenges for the Near Future

Le groupe d'experts STRATA-ETAN (STRATegic Analysis - Expert Thematic ANalysis) a été mis en place par la Commission européenne en décembre 2001 dans le but d'identifier les différentes options devant soutenir, par le biais d'études prospectives, la coopération européenne dans le développement des relations entre l'éducation supérieure et la recherche. Ce rapport identifie les défis majeurs pour l'Europe en ce domaine et propose trois scénarios pour le développement des relations entre l'éducation supérieure et la ...

(-4 more words)

Bibliography

Éducation - Entreprises, travail

Advancing Futures : Futures Studies in Higher Education

Cet ouvrage réunit 29 auteurs de 12 pays différents, professeurs de prospective, qui décrivent les théories et méthodes qui sous-tendent leurs cours. Dans la partie introductive, Wendell Bell fait d'abord la distinction entre les futurs possibles, probables et préférables ; Eleonora Masini plaide pour une meilleure coopération entre les sciences sociales et la prospective, et Warren Wagar s'attarde sur le rôle de l'histoire dans les « future studies ». L'australien Richard Slaughter veut fonder une discipline critique, tandis que ...

(50 more words)

Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Éducation

Returns to Investment in Education : a Further Update

Cette étude apporte un nouvel éclairage sur l'importance de l'éducation et sur la rentabilité des investissements qui lui sont consacrés, en passant en revue les centaines d'études réalisées sur ce thème au cours des dernières décennies. Globalement, le taux moyen de rendement d'une année supplémentaire de formation est de 10 %, mais il dépend du degré de développement économique du pays considéré : il est plus élevé en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes, ainsi qu'en Afrique ...

(34 more words)

Bibliography

Éducation - Géopolitique

Enseignement supérieur et recherche pour l’espace Européen de la recherche : tendances actuelles et défis pour le proche avenir

Un groupe d'experts STRATA-ETAN a été constitué en décembre 2001 avec pour mission de préparer un rapport sur des options visant à soutenir la coopération européenne en matière de prospective pour le développement des relations entre l'enseignement supérieur et la recherche dans la perspective de l'Espace Européen de Recherche. Partant d'une analyse approfondie des tendances actuelles qu'il a pu cerner pour les différents aspects du système d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en Europe, le ...

(277 more words)

Revue

Éducation - Société, modes de vie

Éthique, valeurs et citoyenneté à l’école

Walo Hutmacher stresses the need for a methodology to underpin a rigorous study of the future of education, especially with regard to the issue of values and citizenship, which is closely linked to potential developments in science and technology, as well as in political, economic and social organization at global level.
In the absence of such a methodology, Hutmacher sets out to identify some key trends in current developments and to analyse their possible impact on education systems. He discusses in particular the new ethical issues raised by scientific progress, the consequences of globalization and the decline of the nation-state, as well as the significance of the new youth cultures.
Finally, he looks critically at what is currently happening in schools, above all the gulf between preaching and practice. Yet for all its faults, he argues that the model of state education should be the policy model for 2020, given the important social functions that it provides, especially if it is able to satisfy certain key conditions for bringing about essential reforms.

Revue

Éducation

La prospective de l’éducation

In his speech introducing the seminar "Schools: dateline 2020", Jacques Lesourne, who in 1987 wrote an important book about the future of the French education system in the medium and long term (Éducation et société demain. À la recherche des vraies questions. Paris: La Découverte, 1988), outlines the reasons why it is so necessary to think seriously about the outlook for education.
He mentions first the factors linked to the special nature of the tasks and constraints of the school system, and then discusses the main developments in the technological, economic and social context which will oblige education systems to undergo reforms. This will mean greater independence of action for those who, through their innovations, are able to generate "creative disorder", but also requires a prospective long-term study to clarify their decisions and initiatives.

Revue

Éducation - Géopolitique

Les systèmes éducatifs en Europe

There is no single European model for education, let alone a universally accepted one. Even within the European Union there is enormous diversity, which Francine Vaniscotte sets out to describe here.
Two different views coexist, she explains: the first combines primary education with the first stage of secondary education (everyone attends a single school), whereas the second considers an initial division (selection?) at the beginning of secondary schooling to be necessary.
Taking her analysis a step further, the author identifies four types of education system within the EU:
- the single school model (everyone attends the same school for the whole period of compulsory education) operating in Scandinavia;
- the all-purpose school model, offering pupils a variety of possibilities at secondary level (Great Britain);
- the streamed school model, which is structured according to options chosen early on, but with some degree of mobility between them; this is the most common arrangement in Austria, Germany, Luxemburg, Switzerland, etc.;
- the common core model (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain), which is inspired by the single school model but does not fully apply it, and is shaped by very different traditions and values.
These differences relate to religious traditions and to deep cultural disparities; they also reflect ideological differences, Francine Vaniscotte emphasizes, though she concludes by pointing out some factors bringing the models closer together.

Revue

Éducation

Quels nouveaux chemins vers l’équité ?

Drawing mainly on the example of Italy, but also on developments in other European Union countries, Professor Luisa Ribolzi of the University of Genoa examines the factors that have led to challenges to traditional ideas of equity in education systems; she then highlights the changes in attitude that to her seem irreversible.
The concept of egalitarianism based on the principle of providing a unified and unbiased system of state schools is being replaced by a concept of providing an equitable system that takes account of differences and a variety of needs. For this new approach to be implemented, the state's role as regulator needs to be redefined according to the principle of subsidiarity; it also requires greater autonomy for individual schools and new professional attitudes on the part of teachers and head teachers.

Revue

Éducation - Société, modes de vie

Les inégalités devant l’École

The remarks published here are extracts from an article that appeared in an issue of the journal Administration et éducation (no. 1, 1999) devoted to "Social divides, educational divides". Not included are Claude Thélot's observations on the development of social and geographical inequalities in the French education system: he argues that, whatever anyone says and even if inequalities can be seen to be moving upwards, the school system has nevertheless helped to make French society more democratic insofar as inequalities in access to education are, overall, less marked now than in the past.
That said, much still needs to be done in order to weaken the mechanisms whereby élites reproduce themselves. From this perspective, Claude Thélot argues that the education system should become more diversified while maintaining a strong national framework, able to curb the inequalities that might arise. He also makes the case for a deliberate policy of positive discrimination, while pointing out the contradictions that must be avoided, the precautions required and the need for transparency about the choices to be made.

Revue

Économie, emploi - Éducation

La place de l’École dans l’économie en France

Using the metaphor of painting, Jean-Michel Saussois sets out to provide here three broad-brush pictures representing the rôle of schools in the economy and society in France, the first two looking back to the thirty Glorious Years (the "Trente Glorieuses") followed by the thirty Lean Years, while the third looks forward to the developments linked to what is commonly called "the knowledge-based economy".
Against this historical backdrop, he analyses the dynamic interaction between the tasks given to schools and the changes in priorities and means of regulating the economy and society. Thus between the end of World War II and the end of the 1960s, the French republican élitist model fitted well with the Fordist organization of industrial production. During the subsequent 30 years, characterized by increasing globalization and a growing reliance on market forces, new forms of competition destabilized both the Fordist compromise and the crucial role of schools in facilitating upward social mobility, as well as the tight links between diplomas, skills and remuneration. Although paper qualifications have become more essential than ever, they are now less and less a guarantee of upward social mobility. The result has been a loss of confidence in schools, while even more is expected of them. The current rise of the knowledge-based economy demands new skills, some of which can be acquired and assessed only on the job, and this leads to the emergence of new markets in skills that oblige schools to redefine their key role and to change their ways of operating.

Revue

Éducation

Quels enseignants pour 2020 ?

Given both the new expectations and the new needs arising in the field of education, Françoise Cros offers an innovative portrait of the teacher of the future which some may find too strongly put but which is nevertheless quite plausible. Admittedly there are considerable obstacles to be overcome before the teaching profession undergoes such radical change, but her vision of what teachers might be like in 2020 is consistent with the emergence of a knowledge-based society and the new stress on life-long learning for all. Moreover, the writer makes the very relevant point in her conclusion that the high rate of turnover in the profession in the next ten years will create circumstances highly favourable to such change.

Revue

Éducation

Éducation : entrer dans le XXIe siècle

In this second introductory presentation of the topic "Schools: dateline 2020", Alain Michel, the academic coordinator of the seminar, briefly highlights the main challenges raised for schools by a rapidly changing society which is causing inequalities to become greater and generating new ethical issues, while also creating demands for new skills and even new mental attitudes.
He then discusses the changing expectations with regard to the education system and raises the key question of what shared general culture all pupils should have acquired by the time they leave school in 2020.
Lastly, he offers several ideas about the consequences of all this for the way the process of learning is organized, how change is guided, and the outlook for teaching as a profession. Aspects of these topics were discussed in two articles published in Futuribles in 2000 and 2001 (nos. 252 and 266).

Chapitre Education

Ce chapitre est extrait du Rapport Vigie 2016 de Futuribles International, qui propose un panorama structuré des connaissances et des incertitudes des experts que l'association a mobilisés pour explorer les évolutions des 15 à 35 prochaines années sur 11 thématiques.