Éducation

Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)

Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Éducation

Prospective de l’emploi dans le domaine des géosciences à l’horizon 2020

Les métiers des géosciences, qui concernent, entre autres, l'industrie extractive (mines, carrières, pétrole, gaz...), les infrastructures et l'environnement (traitement des sols pollués, déchets, stockages souterrains...) seront directement concernés par les modifications à venir dans le secteur énergétique. Une étude du ministère de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche propose de revenir sur les spécificités de ce secteur en France. À partir d'une comparaison avec d'autres pays, sont mis en lumière les défis à relever pour ...

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Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

El Futuro de la educación a distancia y del e-learning en América Latina. Una visión prospectiva

L’Instituto latinoamericano de la comunicacion educativa a organisé, en 2006, une démarche prospective autour de la thématique du « futur de l’éducation à distance et du e-learning en Amérique latine » à l’horizon 2025. Le présent ouvrage propose un bilan de ces travaux auxquels ont participé des experts latinoaméricains de l’éducation, des nouvelles technologies et de la prospective. Dans la première partie sont analysées les évolutions récentes de l’éducation en Amérique latine et dans le monde et ...

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Bibliography

Éducation

Educación terciaria transfronteriza. Una nueva perspectiva para la integración

Cet ouvrage fait partie du cadre théorique de l'étude de l'organisation intergouvernementale CAB (Convenio Andrès Bello) et de ses 13 pays membres, L'Éducation supérieure pour la transformation productive et sociale équitable. Le titre se réfère au fait que l'éducation du futur sera amenée à dépasser le cadre des frontières nationales. Dans l'éducation supérieure du futur interviendront des facteurs tels que les changements démographiques et les migrations, la nécessité de garantir un accès équitable à l ...

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Revue

Éducation

Continuous Educational and Professional Guidance as a Means of Improving Chances in Education and Employment

At the end of September 2007, the French government set up a commission, chaired by Marcel Pochard, to examine how the profession of teacher is changing. The commission has been asked to produce a "green paper" assessing the current state of the profession, which in turn is to be the basis for a "white paper" with a view to reforming the present arrangements. The question of the educational guidance of schoolchildren will probably be among the topics discussed by the commission, given that teachers are so directly involved in it, which is why Futuribles is publishing this article by Claude Vimont on the subject of educational and careers guidance in France.
According to Claude Vimont, there are several problems with the way that such guidance is given at present, leading to a high failure rate and consequently a poor return on expenditure. Such is his first conclusion, backed up by international comparisons.
He makes a case for "continuous guidance in a more efficient educational system and a more mobile society" and proposes a reassessment of when guidance is offered in the course of the school and professional career (in line with the generally accepted idea of "lifelong learning") in order to take account of today's economic uncertainties and the fact that people are working for longer. In addition to a reform of the apprenticeship system and making university courses more "vocational", he argues that two changes are necessary: an interview with failing students to offer them different options, and the creation of an independent public body responsible for information and guidance to replace the existing ones. For adults, despite the handful of measures already in place (e.g. relating to the recognition of professional experience), he says that the scope is endless: devising career paths that optimize job security, helping people to make career decisions that take account of foreseeable developments in employment, etc. What is important is to develop a truly integrated vision of educational and professional guidance throughout people's lives ...

Revue

Éducation

Factors for Change in the World of French State Education

For more than 20 years, successive Ministries of Education in France have launched debates about possible reforms to the sector. Various pieces of legislation have been passed (in 1985, 1989, 2005) but the problems persist, in particular with regard to the management of the teaching staff in terms of both quantity and quality. The government elected in June 2007 has therefore set up yet another commission (chaired by Marcel Pochard) to examine the topic with a view ultimately to a further reform of the teaching profession..
The future of education, as perceived through the changes affecting the teachers and their knowledge and skills, is a major challenge. In this article Claude Seibel, who has long studied these matters, focusses on two key concerns in this context: the main aim, which is to ensure equal opportunities for all pupils and that they should successfully complete their education; and the opportunity offered as the present generation of teachers retires to redefine what is expected of the profession.
He goes on to present seven decisive factors required to bring about change in the French state education system: overhaul the way teachers are moved between jobs, encourage greater mobility, revive project-based teaching, optimize the use of information technologies, rethink arrangements for information and guidance, reduce failure rates and promote "education for success". This is an important contribution to the forthcoming debate.

Revue

Éducation - Entreprises, travail - Géopolitique - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Higher Education in Europe. Recent Developments and Future Perspectives

In this article, as the French government sets out to undertake a major reform of the country's higher education system, Barbara Kehm highlights current trends in Europe in this field.
The author starts by describing the "Bologna process", which launched a new system of qualifications and a series of major reforms of higher education programmes in more than 40 European countries. She then shows how this process (started in 1999) has been combined with the Lisbon strategy (2000) with the aim of establishing by 2010 a Europe-wide system of higher education linked to plans for research and innovation.
Barbara Kehm also examines how the role of the state in the management of higher education is changing in Europe. She discusses the new forms of governance that have developed against the background of the system's problems of both funding and legitimacy, resulting in growing moves towards greater autonomy for individual institutions and more vocationally oriented courses.
Finally, Barbara Kehm looks at three key issues for European higher education: more diverse sources of funding (in order above all to cope with increased numbers of students), research and improvements in quality (via better evaluation and accreditation), and internationalization (involving both co-operation and competition). She concludes her analysis by setting out the main trends in this field for the next 10 years.

Revue

Éducation

Three Scenarios for Transnational Higher Education

Stéphan Vincent-Lancrin and Kurt Larsen present in this article the main trends in transnational higher education over the last decade and the prospects for the future. Among these trends, they stress in particular the growth in numbers of students registered for foreign educational programmes (whether in another country, imported into their own country or available on-line), and the increasing diversity of the transnational programmes offered (courses taken abroad or offered jointly via foreign institutions or e-learning).
The authors also discuss the current strategies for making higher education more international: promoting "mutual understanding" (scholarships and university exchange programmes, partnership arrangements between institutions), mobility of suitably qualified people (more active and targeted recruitment of students), more diverse sources of funding (i.e. adding commercial aims to the two previous ones), and finally bolstering what other countries are able to offer their own students through the export of higher education courses.
After a discussion of the considerable potential growth of transnational education in the next 15-20 years, the authors propose three possible scenarios: education will continue to become increasingly diverse and international, the free market model will become more and more the norm, and/or the former developing economies will become highly successful.

Revue

Éducation

The International League Tables of Universities

Inadequate funding, too many students, lack of career prospects for graduates...: the French universities appear to amass criticisms and blockages. Following Jean-Jacques Salomon's article last month on the "strangling of the French universities", this month Futuribles has invited Bertrand Bellon, a professor of economics in Paris, to give his views.
The principle of marking and ranking is part and parcel of the education system, he points out, and the universities themselves cannot escape it: several international league tables are now generally accepted guides to quality. In them, the French universities come in the middle of the rankings and not one figures among the top institutions, traditionally a monopoly of American universities. This suggests, Bertrand Bellon argues, that we should examine the reasons behind the mismatch between the criteria used in drawing up these rankings and those given priority by the French higher education system.
This shows, he says, that what dominates the rankings are criteria based on reputation (those of the Times, the Times Higher Education Supplement) or production and influence of academic research (those of Jiao Tong University in Shanghai and the Internet site Webometrics); these award France a ranking that is "reasonable" given its size and the level of international competition.
Nevertheless, Bertrand Bellon stresses, the present international university league tables are too selective and subjective to justify their role in selecting the best universities in the world.
Consequently he puts forward two ways of improving the league tables: offer different rankings that take account of other aspects of the universities, or give greater weight in the evaluations to how far an institution's results are consistent with its aims and means. In conclusion, he acknowledges that it is obvious that the performance of the French universities in the rankings highlights certain problems peculiar to the French system which it would not be helpful to disguise by using different rankings.

Forum

Éducation

The Strangling of the French Universities

For some years now, evaluations of universities around the world are from time to time the subject of reports, in particular by Jiao Tong University in Shangai and by the Times Higher Education Supplement (THES). The French universities do not come out well in these rankings, probably because of the peculiarities of the French system of organizing research and higher education: firstly because research institutions are separated from universities, and secondly because of the existence of the grandes écoles alongside the universities.
Nevertheless, it is undeniably true that the French universities are deteriorating, according to Jean-Jacques Salomon. This decline cannot be attributed solely to lack of funding, nor therefore can it be overcome merely by increasing the budget for research and development. As Olivier Postel-Vinay has rightly argued before, it arises from four obstacles to any possibility of reform: the universities' lack of independence, the way that funds are allocated, the fact that researchers are civil servants and the highly centralized state.
But in addition to these obstacles, which Jean-Jacques Salomon also emphasizes, there are plenty of other problems: the proliferation of universities and the huge increase in student numbers (without a corresponding increase in the number of teachers and administrators) resulting from a pseudo-democratization of higher education and the priority given in France to longer academic courses rather than to vocational and technical courses, which are held in low esteem. Consequently the aim of ensuring that 80% of every age cohort reaches the level of the baccalauréat (school-leaving examination) is demagogic and misleading, the author argues. For one thing, many young people leave school without either a qualification or any training; for another, this does not prevent the best students from aiming for the top institutions of higher education, leaving the rest to turn to the universities, which in reality lack the means to cope with them properly, much less to provide everyone with the high quality of education that only a dozen universities can claim to offer.
This assessment has been made over and over again for more than half a century, says Jean-Jacques Salomon, yet no reform has ever been undertaken that is adequate to meet the challenges. On the contrary, the Ministry of Education has constantly issued "paradoxical injunctions" that are harmful in every respect, and especially to the students.
However, the decline of the French universities is not inevitable, the author argues. He makes some propositions that are decidedly provocative to French eyes, such as the suggestion that universities should be given enough independence to be able to choose their students, their teachers, their administrators, their fees, their degree courses and syllabuses ...
The author strongly criticizes the bottlenecks and the hypocrisy inherent in the French policy on education and training, which he calls "a machine for reproducing inequalities" that leads to a poor standard of higher education in France and to a sense of bitterness and frustration on the part of many young people.

Analyse prospective

Économie, emploi - Éducation

La prospective des métiers

La prospective des métiers est nécessaire dans un contexte de transformations du marché du travail, des organisations et de l'environnement économique, afin d'éclairer les parcours professionnels possibles des individus et d'anticiper les besoins en compétences et en renouvellement de la main-d'œuvre. Elle est au centre des préoccupations des différents acteurs de la vie économique, car la question se pose non seulement au niveau collectif (État, région, branche, entreprises), mais également au niveau individuel (formation initiale, formation ...

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CR table ronde

Économie, emploi - Éducation

Perspective emploi-formation à l’horizon 2015

Le ministère de l’Éducation nationale a mené de nombreuses prospectives emploi depuis une vingtaine d’années, souvent en collaboration avec le BIPE (Bureau d’information et de prévisions économiques). L’objectif de cette démarche pour le ministère de l’Éducation nationale est d’apprécier les besoins de l’économie en matière de recrutement de jeunes diplômés. Le ministère peut ensuite en déduire les orientations pour faire évoluer le système éducatif et permettre aux jeunes une meilleure entrée dans le ...

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Éducation - Entreprises, travail

Mobilités professionnelles et compétences transversales

Dans un contexte de mutations économiques, de tensions sur le marché du travail et de vieillissement de la population active, les entreprises sont confrontées au nécessaire renouvellement des effectifs et au déficit de main-d'œuvre qualifiée. Elles doivent alors placer la mobilité interne et externe au cœur de leurs préoccupations. C'est la raison pour laquelle le groupe Prospective des métiers et qualifications a engagé des travaux visant à identifier dans quelle mesure, et à quelles conditions la reconnaissance des ...

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Éducation

Repenser l’enseignement. Des scénarios pour agir

Ce dernier volume de la série L'École de demain examine comment développer des scénarios et les utiliser pour répondre aux défis auxquels responsables politiques et praticiens sont confrontés. Il donne à la fois une vue d'ensemble fondée sur l'expertise, et présente des perspectives intéressantes sur l'évolution de l'École. Il offre ainsi aux professionnels de l'éducation un panorama des approches fondées sur des scénarios adoptés par d'autres secteurs. Il leur permettra de se référer ...

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Éducation

Regards sur l’éducation

L'OCDE, dans son édition 2006 de Regards sur l'éducation, fait le point sur l'état de l'éducation au sein des 30 pays membres de l'organisation. L'étude passe en revue l'évolution récente de l'ensemble du système éducatif, de la primaire au supérieur. Le premier constat, généralisable à la quasi-totalité des 30 États, est que les niveaux de formation sont en constante augmentation, et que plus d'un tiers des étudiants des pays membres poursuivent ...

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Éducation - Société, modes de vie

The Future of Art & Design Practice & Education

Ces scénarios ont été élaborés au cours de trois ateliers qui ont réuni des membres de l'administration, des étudiants, et les personnes de la direction. Ils ne portent pas sur l'OCAD mais sur le monde dans lequel l'OCAD sera amené à évoluer. La question n'est pas « que peut-il arriver ? » mais « que ferait l'OCAD si ceci arrivait ? ». La première étape a consisté à identifier les facteurs influençant l'avenir de la pratique artistique, du design et ...

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Revue

Éducation - Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Reforming Universities and Research: the Japanese Approach

Futuribles has devoted much space in the last year to the problems of research, and in particular its organization. In a recent article (n° 306, March 2005), Catherine Paradeise and Jean-Claude Thoenig argued that it is essential to consult everyone involved in the research system and to explain to them, step by step if necessary, the need for changes in the hopes that the reform might then be carried through, with particular reference to France.
We continue the debate on this question with an article describing the Japanese experience of reforming their research system. Michel Israël shows how the Japanese radically overhauled their system by means of several five-year plans. Above all, he highlights the current major reform of the national universities which affects their method of hiring to research posts; partnerships between universities, industry and government; the creation of centres of excellence, etc. Key words here are competition, autonomy, releasing creativity and more flexible management. He also describes how this reform, which aims to restore Japan as a leader in research internationally, has been welcomed and implemented by the main players involved. The reform may not yet be completed, but it is well under way; it remains to be seen what its impact will be on Japan's performance in research in the next few years.

Bibliography

Éducation

« Les prospectives de l’École »

sujet qui concerne lui-même directement l’avenir. Aucun pays n’a mis en place, au sein de son ministère de l’Éducation, un service ou un département exclusivement en charge de la prospective. En France, la DEP (Direction de l’évaluation et de la prospective) est principalement centrée sur l’évaluation. Ce constat étant fait, deux exercices de prospective de l’éducation particulièrement ambitieux sont étudiés dans cette note de synthèse. Le premier a été réalisé dans le cadre de ...

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Bibliography

Éducation

Cinq scénarios pour le futur des établissements d’enseignement et de recherche en gestion

Où va l'enseignement supérieur de gestion ? Quelle stratégie pour les écoles et les universités qui forment les managers de demain ? Quelles relations tisser avec les entreprises ? Pour tenter de répondre à ces questions, une étude prospective a été réalisée par Thomas Durand, professeur à l'École centrale de Paris pour le compte de la FNEGE, et présentée en ouverture des XVIIe rencontres nationales de l'enseignement de gestion. S'appuyant sur les témoignages et les avis recueillis auprès de ...

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