Économie, emploi

Cette page regroupe l'ensemble des publications de Futuribles sur cette thématique (Vigie, revue, bibliographie, études, etc.)

Revue

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail - Institutions - Société, modes de vie

Les services d’aide à la personne. Analyse comparative et formes d’aide proposées

Beside the Hespel-Thierry Report (cf. Futuribles n°245, pp.31-44), two other reports on the helping professions were published in France in 1998. They are issued by the Council on Economic Analysis (Conseil d'Analyse Économique) attached to the Office of the Prime Minister.
Gilbert Cette compares the three reports which, although they agree on many observations, sometimes come to different recommendations.

Bibliography

Économie, emploi

« Droit au travail et sécurité d’existence »

Dans une Europe marquée par un niveau de chômage élevé, où des groupes de population restent durablement exclus de l'accès au monde du travail, des questions de fond resurgissent régulièrement dans le débat public. Faut-il découpler complètement droit au travail et droit au revenu d'existence, pour permettre aux personnes privées d'emploi d'avoir au moins des revenus décents ? Les différentes variantes de « l'allocation universelle » sont-elles pertinentes pour combattre la grande pauvreté ? Comment rendre le droit au ...

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Revue

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail - Institutions - Société, modes de vie

Les services d’aide aux personnes. Diagnostic et et propositions

Véronique Hespel and Michel Thierry present their synopsis of a report commissioned by the French Government on services provided to individuals (care of young children, aid to the elderly or handicapped).
Starting with a diagnosis of the existing system, they underscore its complexity and poor performance. As is often the case in matters of social policy over time, new measures have been added incrementally, with a consequent multiplication of administrative bodies. The result is a costly maze which, although it created jobs, was not adapted to needs and in the end was not manageable.
Asked to make proposals for improving the efficiency of the system without destroying jobs or compromising the balance of public finances, the authors came up with several recommendations inspired by a three-part preoccupation:
- to rationalize and impose uniformity on the melange of services,
- to restructure assistance by targeting the most needy households, and
- to put in place a policy of professionalization in the helping services.
Precise measures are proposed. They are succinctly described in the second part of the article published here.

Revue

Économie, emploi - Institutions

L’avenir des retraites en Europe

The future of pensions, mainly based on the principle of redistribution, provokes legitimate concern in European countries, due not only to the aging of the population but also to the evolving socio-economic context. While we may be unable to predict how the latter will evolve in the next decades, some trends are worrisome : globalization of the economy, for example, and its corollary of international competitiveness, forces entreprises, to be more cost-competitive and to minimize their contributions to social programs, including the unemployment problem.
In such a context, it is not difficult for some to raise the spectre of failure of the redistributive pension system and the spectre of intergenerational warfare, while others promote the merits of capitalization. To set capitalization and pay-as-you-go in opposition is nevertheless a false debate, according to Giovanni Tamburi. These two techniques of financing are more complementary than opposing. In fact, many European countries have made highly opportune reforms and are evolving toward a mixed system.
The author describes these reforms and shows how elements of capitalization can be introduced into the systems of pay-as-you-go (investing part of the contributions into saving funds) and concludes by describing the costs and modalities of financing pensions. He stresses that pay-as-you-go systems jeopardize job creation.

Revue

Économie, emploi

France : une croissance plus riche en emploi

As we have stressed many times in Futuribles when discussing French economic growth, the employment response has been weak compared with other industrialized countries. Arnaud Gérardin demonstrates here that the situation is gradually getting better. In the '70s, it took an increase of at least 2.6 % in GDP to generate growth in employment. This figure fell to 2.2 % in the '80s and should come close to 1.2 % in the '90s.
The author goes on to describe the factors which have contributed to this improvement and to identify their respective influence :
- the first element is development within the sector of tertiary activities, which is important because apparent labor productivity there is generally weaker than in industry ;
- the increase in part-time work, especially since 1992, should be a second factor ;
- the development of short-term employment contracts is a third element ;
- last, the reduction of social expenditures within the framework of the quinquennial law, coupled with a moderate increase in wages, has probably contributed to the general amelioration.
Arnaud Gérardin translates the contributions into percentages : 10 % for the internal changes within the sectors of the economy, 20 % for the development of part time work, 20 to 30 % for the development of short term contractual work, and 20 to 30 % for the policy aimed at reducing social expenditures.
It is nevertheless important to note that with the number of employees and job seekers increasing in average by 140,000 per year (that means 1 % of private sector employment), the growth rate required to stabilize unemployment is greater than the rate which can keep employment constant. If about 1.2 % is sufficient today to stabilize employment, it would take 2.2 % growth to keep unemployment at a constant share of the work force.

Futurs d'antan

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail

Du protectionnisme au libre-échange. Les conditions de la réussite dans l’économie cosmopolite

Economist Friedrich List (1789-1846) was contemporaneous with the birth of railways, German uncertainties before Bismarck, and the rise of the United States.
He dreamed of a unified or " common " market within the German market, based on the new possibilities of transportation and protection from external competition (the Zollverein). This would permit new enterprises some time to grow strong enough to face foreign ones.
He was often described as a national-protectionist, a thesis accepted by Emmanuel Todd, who introduces this republication of List by Gallimard. In reality, he was a liberal, although a realistic one. Before facing the outside world, the basics have to be reinforced.
List lived in several countries, where he tried to influence decision makers. He wrote everywhere in the language of his host country. " Free trade is profitable to individuals and the States ". However, during the development phase, protectionism is vital. Regardless of the brilliance of his analyses, List was unsuccessful in efforts to influence the course of enterprises which he helped to launch in the States and later in Germany.
He found his most stiking illustrations in the United States, which he visited to observe the construction of railways. His "National System of Political Economy", written in 1841, was very much studied in the United States. Conceived and written primarily in Paris, it sheds light on the current European debate. We provide three excerpts in this issue. One is on the necessity of strengthening industries before facing cosmopolitan competition. Another is a plea for confederation of peoples in order to secure a perpetual peace. It took Europe a hundred years of suicidal war before it would seriously listen to a message that the world at large is still not ready to accept, despite the United Nations. In the third excerpt, List identified the rational behind the success of America, which was already visible in his times.

Revue

Économie, emploi - Société, modes de vie

Exclusion : de l’aveuglement à la clairvoyance

Exclusion: From Blindness to Clairvoyance, Xavier Godinot
This text by Xavier Godinot is not future-oriented, although poverty does seem to be on the rise, even if the means to eradicate it quickly may be conceivable (dixit Muhammad Yunus). The more worrisome element is an invariance in attitudes toward the phenomenon.
Xavier Godinot starts with a series of facts which have been kept hidden for a long time. They reveal that richer countries which are held up as models of humans' rights, entire populations have been exterminated, deported, sterilized or interned. He gives some examples to illustrate and denounce the denial and hiding, both individual and collective, which are the core subject of this article.
He attempts to understand and explain the sources of our blindness to social phenomena which bother us and our tendency to hide them. This possibly unconscious behavior calls for a deliberate attitude of vigilance to the feelings and processes of social exclusion, the instinctive urge to eliminate individuals or entire populations which for some reason do not fit our norms, frighten us, and are therefore rejected.
The same discomfort we feel in the presence of personal handicaps feeds our attitudes toward victims of social inequalities, and Godinot warns us against the progressive but irreversible processes of exclusion. Beyond a call to human charity, he underlines the constant danger of an apartheid and the essential role of solidarity in development.

Revue

Économie, emploi - Institutions

Le temps de travail dans la fonction publique. Synthèse du rapport de la mission sur le temps de travail

Working Time in the Public Service. A Synthesis of the Report Presented by the Commission on Working Time, Jacques Roché
The French government has made reduction of working hours one of its essential priorities in the fight against unemployment. A first law was passed in June 1998, stipulating that by the first of January 2002 the legal working week will be reduced to 35 hours from 39 hours.
But the main employer in France is the state (with 2.2 million employees); the public and para-public sectors together employ between 4 and 6 million (see the article by Annie Brenot-Ouldali). One of the unanswered questions is how the reduction of working hours will affect the quality of service of the public sector, which is already notorious for its relaxed attitude to working time.
The ministry responsible for reform and decentralization of the public service appointed Jacques Roché to head an interdepartmental inquiry on the topic. His mandate was 1) to conduct a comprehensive survey on regulations and practices pertaining to working time and overtime in the public service; and 2) to explore the ways to organize work to improve the quality of service with a working week of 35 hours. The published text is a synthesis of the report presented by the interdepartmental commission.
It starts with an analysis of the situation, which stresses the difficulty of giving a precise estimate of the time spent at work due to the different situations and conditions of work. It provides us nevertheless with useful information about hours of work per week.
The second part summarizes the Commission's proposals. It stresses especially the need to couple reduction with reorganization of working time and with a modernization of the public service, which Jacques Roché says should be undertaken to improve working conditions.

Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Institutions

« La prospective d’un siècle à l’autre : prospective et gouvernance »

À l'occasion du colloque de Cerisy organisé autour du thème « Prospective et gouvernance » du 4 au 10 juin 1999, Repères prospectifs a tenu à introduire le débat en sortant un dossier spécial sur la question. C'est ainsi qu'une série d'articles sont réunis autour de la problématique de l'État, de ses marges de manœuvre décisionnelles, de la démocratie à l'échelle nationale et locale... et du rôle de la prospective dans ces différents domaines à l ...

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Économie, emploi - Institutions

Comprendre les États-Unis d’aujourd’hui

Professeur à la Sorbonne, enseignant l'histoire de l'Amérique du Nord à l'Université de Paris I, André Kaspi admet que les États-Unis fascinent et irritent en même temps, mais il voudrait que les Français comprennent mieux la dernière superpuissance de ce siècle. Il nous convie donc à une visite guidée, passant en revue la puissance militaire sans égale mais bridée par le souci de ne pas risquer la vie des combattants, la diplomatie hésitante mais pragmatique, qui donne ...

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Économie, emploi

Banker to the Poor

Muhammad Yunus est le premier à dénoncer les aumônes destinées à donner bonne conscience aux donateurs plus qu'à véritablement aider les pauvres. Ceux-ci sont, affirme-t-il, « bancables », et c'est fort de cette intuition qu'il a fondé la Grameen Bank qui distribue aujourd'hui des prêts à 2,3 millions de familles, soit 10 % de la population du Bangladesh, son pays d'origine. Ce livre décrit le principe mis en œuvre par Yunus pour lutter contre le sous-développement, principe ...

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Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Géopolitique

L’Économie mondiale de demain. Vers quel essor durable ?

L'optimisme est de mise dans cet ouvrage issu de la conférence organisée par le forum de l'OCDE sur l'avenir, les 2 et 3 décembre 1998 à Francfort, sur le thème « Le dynamisme économique du XXIe siècle : anatomie d'une longue période d'expansion ». En effet, les intervenants partent du principe que le monde se trouve face à une perspective séduisante, celle d'un nouveau boom économique engendré par la coïncidence du changement technologique (technologies de l'information ...

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Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Société, modes de vie

The Great Disruption. Human Nature and the Reconstitution of the Social Order

À l'instar de La Fin de l'Histoire et le Dernier Homme, ce nouvel essai de Francis Fukuyama est riche, référencé, fort ambitieux et quelque peu provocant. Trois parties le composent, que l'on peut approximativement traduire comme suit : 1) le grand bouleversement ; 2) au sujet de la généalogie des morales ; 3) la grande reconstruction. L'ouvrage se présente comme un état des lieux de l'évolution des sociétés développées, accompagné d'un examen précis et informé de leur ...

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Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Recherche, sciences, techniques

21st Century Economics. Perspectives of Socioeconomics for a Changing World

Avec l'entrée dans le XXIe siècle, il devient de plus en plus évident que la vie économique sera différente de l'autre côté du millénaire. Le communisme s'est effondré, des industries complètement nouvelles sont nées et le monde se globalise. L'actuelle révolution de l'information crée un nouveau système de politique économique, tout comme la révolution industrielle avait créé le sien. Pour tenter d'analyser ces transformations, William E. Halal et Kenneth B. Taylor ont sollicité la ...

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Économie, emploi

Flexibilité et création d’emplois : un défi pour le dialogue social en Europe

La flexibilité du marché du travail crée-t-elle des emplois? Est-elle la seule réponse au chômage massif et persistant qui frappe l'Europe depuis deux décennies ? Pour répondre à ces questions, l'auteur se penche d'abord sur les causes présumées de ce chômage et notamment les rigidités du marché du travail, souvent mises en cause, telles que la législation protectrice de l'emploi en matière de recrutement et de licenciement, de durée du travail et de protection sociale (Etat-providence), la ...

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Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail

Le Nouvel Esprit du capitalisme

L'ouvrage de Luc Boltanski et Ève Chiapello part d'un constat simple: alors que la situation sociale des salariés s'est considérablement dégradée depuis une vingtaine d'années, le capitalisme ne s'est jamais aussi bien porté. Les profits des entreprises et les indices bousiers s'envolent, tandis que la critique semble désarmée. Cette régénérescence du capitalisme, nos auteurs croient la trouver dans le développement d'un nouvel esprit du capitalisme dont ils reconstituent la généalogie à travers l ...

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