Programme d'études. Enseignement. Acquisition de connaissances

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Rebooting AI : Building Artificial Intelligence We Can Trust

Rebooting AI: Building Artificial Intelligence We Can Trust

Gary Marcus et Ernest Davis sont deux spécialistes de l’intelligence artificielle (IA) : le premier est professeur en psychologie et neuroscience, le second en sciences informatiques. Ce livre donne un éclairage sur la situation exacte de l’IA aujourd’hui : ce que fait, mais surtout ne fait pas cette technologie. Il permet d’avoir un regard critique sur le battage médiatique auquel on assiste à ce sujet, et de mieux comprendre comment remettre l’IA sur le bon chemin pour ...

(971 more words)

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Recherche, sciences, techniques - Territoires, réseaux

Quand la machine apprend. La révolution des neurones artificiels et de l’apprentissage profond

Quand la machine apprend. La révolution des neurones artificiels et de l’apprentissage profond

Après La Plus Belle Histoire de l’intelligence [1], Yann Le Cun nous dévoile une nouvelle facette de son expertise scientifique, l’intelligence artificielle (IA) apprenante — une expertise mondialement reconnue puisqu’elle lui a valu le prix Turing 2018, décerné par l’ACM (Association for Computing Machinery). Le voyage en intelligence artificielle auquel il nous invite tient à la fois de la rétrospection, de l’exploration et de l’anticipation ; les trois comportant une dimension introspective utile à la compréhension ...

(953 more words)

Revue

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques - Santé

Excessive Early Exposure to Screens: How to Detect and Prevent the Associated Disorders

This third strand in the “Brain” series initiated by Futuribles in January 2019 is given over to human-machine interactions (screens, computers etc.) and, more particularly, to the impact of screens on brain development and function, especially among young people. Daniel Marcelli, a child psychiatrist, looks here at the excessive early exposure of very young children to screens and its consequences for their development.

He begins by recalling a number of clinical findings made by early childhood specialists — children living increasingly in their own bubbles and being increasingly withdrawn — which suggest that exposure of very young children to screens is likely to have serious consequences on the development of their language skills, emotions and capacity to interact with others (whether children or adults). Stressing the importance of interactions with adults and the real world, Marcelli describes the mechanisms of the child’s construction of relational and emotional capacities, mechanisms that cannot be acquired through the use of screens and the associated digital contents but require human relations. Hence his call for a genuine mobilization on the part of the public authorities to intensify research in this field, sensitize the population to the risks of such early, intensive exposure of very young children to screens, and develop teaching tools on the rational use of these interfaces within the family.

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

The Human-Machine Dialogue. Artificial Intelligence/Human Intelligence: Manipulation and Evaluation

After a first dossier on “the Brain and Learning” (Futuribles 428), followed by a second on the plasticity of the brain (issue 431), Futuribles is opening a third strand in the “Brain” series, this time on human-machine interactions and the impact of screens on the development of young people. As a specialist in human-machine interaction, Laurence Devillers presents the issues inherent in the development of “conversational agents” and other robots endowed with artificial intelligence that are increasingly found interacting with individuals in various contexts.

After reminding us how these (self-)learning systems operate, she stresses how vigilant we must be about the possible manipulation of individuals by these types of interface (particularly through “nudge” techniques). She also shows how emotions are used in human-machine interactions (emotional triggers, humour etc.) and outlines the tools available today to evaluate artificial intelligence — and even to compare it to human intelligence (particularly the Turing test and its limitations). Given the rapid advances in machine learning, Devillers calls for the development of new tests for assessing machine capabilities, aimed in particular at monitoring their ability to manipulate individuals. Though technical progress is exponential, responsibility for the way its application is regulated in society and in the real world still falls — at least for the moment — upon citizens: it is up to individuals, as of now, to determine the ethical, regulatory and other frameworks within which such human-machine interfaces should be embedded.

Revue

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques - Santé

Screens and the Development of Children and Adolescents

This third strand in the “Brain” series initiated by Futuribles in January 2019 is given over to human-machine interactions (screens, computers etc.) and, more particularly, to the impact of screens on brain function and development, especially among young people. In this article, Grégoire Borst, a specialist in neurosciences and the brain, looks into the consequences of the increased exposure to screens that has been seen in recent years, particularly among children and adolescents. While everyone is affected by this increased exposure, the question of its impact probably arises more sharply in the case of young people, whose neurological and cerebral development is not yet complete.

Though it is normal, as he stresses here, to be vigilant in such matters and to show concern about the consequences of over-exposure to screens, we must also keep matters in proportion: whether we are speaking of television, video games or social networks, it all depends on the contents and activities concerned. Some television programmes or video games may have harmful effects on health or brain development, but others may also stimulate and enhance the capacities of the children and adolescents who engage with them. It is difficult, then, to reach a cut-and-dried decision on the need or otherwise to avoid exposing children to screens, and we will probably have to wait some years to have sufficient perspective to determine the actual consequences of that exposure.

Bibliography

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques - Santé

La Fabrique du crétin digital. Les dangers des écrans pour nos enfants

La Fabrique du crétin digital. Les dangers des écrans pour nos enfants

Après TV lobotomie [1], ouvrage dans lequel il prenait vigoureusement à partie des défenseurs du petit écran et leur déni quant à son emprise et ses effets dévastateurs sur l’intelligence humaine, après L’Anti-régime [2] puis L’Anti-régime au quotidien [3] dans lesquels il dénonçait l’aberration physiologique des régimes restrictifs, Michel Desmurget est de retour et nous invite à le rejoindre dans le cœur de cible des neurosciences cognitives, son ADN scientifique. Particulièrement argumenté, illustré par d’abondantes ...

(1123 more words)

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Santé

Dreams, Sleep and Memory: Brain Plasticity at the Heart of Memory, Sleep and Brain-Machine Interfaces

Karim Benchenane’s article, the third contribution to our dossier on brain plasticity, revisits this notion to explain that it covers “the way experience will, in the long term, modify the effectiveness with which neurons are able to communicate among themselves.” Though he stresses the primordial role of the earliest years, he nonetheless observes that, contrary to what we had long thought, this plasticity lasts a whole lifetime.

Benchenane then explains the mechanisms governing memory, while stressing that there are different forms — most notably, short-term and long-term memory — not all of them dependent on the hippocampus. Then, as learning and memorization consume a large part of the energy required for brain functioning, he reminds us of the importance of sleep, which is required for physical recovery. He is careful also to underscore that these processes are still subjects of scientific controversy, which he lays out here very clearly and interestingly.

Lastly, Benchenane alerts us to the risk of falling victim, as we sleep, to social conditioning and he closes his article with some thoughts on brain-machine interactions, a subject to which we shall return in our third dossier on the brain, to be published at the end of the year.

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Santé

L’Intelligence humaine n’est pas un algorithme

L’Intelligence humaine n’est pas un algorithme

Préfacé par Jean-Pierre Changeux qui alerte d’emblée le lecteur sur l’importance de comprendre ce qui distingue le cerveau humain de « la ferraille » computationnelle, l’essai d’Olivier Houdé est à n’en pas douter un pavé dans la mare : il renvoie à la fois dos à dos celles et ceux qui réduisent le développement de l’intelligence humaine à un processus adaptatif linéaire et / ou incrémental, et celles et ceux qui ne considèrent le cerveau que comme une ...

(978 more words)

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Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Mettre l’IA au service des enseignants pour assurer l’inclusion et la réussite scolaire de tous les élèves

Mettre l’IA au service des enseignants pour assurer l’inclusion et la réussite scolaire de tous les élèves

Fondée fin 2017, la jeune association #Leplusimportant rassemble déjà près de 250 experts autour des notions de capital humain et d’égalité des chances, dans une société inclusive. Dans ce cadre, elle participe à la réflexion plus générale initiée par la France sous l’égide de Cédric Villani sur les potentiels de l’intelligence artificielle (IA) dans plusieurs grands domaines socio-économiques. Parmi eux, l’association a choisi de se concentrer sur celui de l’éducation, en investiguant les diverses possibilités ...

(698 more words)

Bibliography

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Learning, Teaching, and Education : Policies for the Future

The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Learning, Teaching, and Education: Policies for the Future

Ce rapport offre une analyse critique et une vision prospective du développement de l’intelligence artificielle (IA) et de son impact possible sur l’éducation. Il s’agit d’une contribution au Plan d’action en matière d’éducation numérique [1] adopté en 2017, qui a pour objet de favoriser l’acquisition de compétences numériques par tous les citoyens au sein de l’Union européenne. Le plan comporte trois priorités : développer une meilleure utilisation des outils numériques pour apprendre et ...

(792 more words)

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Éducation

Confiance, coopération et autonomie : pour une école du XXIe siècle

Confiance, coopération et autonomie : pour une école du XXIe siècle

Les enquêtes sur les résultats scolaires, notamment internationales, qui ont été menées depuis une vingtaine d’années, ont révélé de graves lacunes du système français d’éducation, autrefois considéré comme très performant. Outre le fait que dans des enquêtes, comme celle de PISA (Programme international pour le suivi des acquis des élèves), la position relative de la France s’est sensiblement détériorée, il faut aussi noter que l’écart entre jeunes en difficulté issus de classes défavorisées et les meilleurs ...

(818 more words)

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Santé

Artificial and Human Intelligence

Also as part of our special dossier on research into the brain and learning processes, a major question is raised in this article: are recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI), and particularly the rise of neural networks, liable to put in doubt the supremacy of the human brain? What differences in nature, what conflicts or complementarities are there between these two forms of intelligence?

After reminding us of the birth of the neural networks field, the advances made with such networks and their recent successes, Jean-Claude Heudin lays out their limitations. He goes on to explain the specificity of neural networks and AI, which, he writes, “are not complex systems, but ordered systems” that may have superior capacities to humans with respect to certain tasks. By contrast, human intelligence is “many-faceted, emotional and empathic”; for that reason, it has superior abilities to AI when it comes to performing many other tasks and functioning in a complex environment. Lastly, taking pains to demonstrate the different forms of intelligence, Heudin concludes that AI and human intelligence are complementary.

Editorial

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Santé - Société, modes de vie

Le cerveau à découvert

J’adresse mes vœux les meilleurs à nos lectrices et à nos lecteurs pour qu’ils puissent, durant l’année qui vient, transformer eux-mêmes le souhaitable en probable, donc être acteurs plus qu’esclaves de leur avenir tant individuel que collectif. L’an dernier déjà [1], je les invitais à devenir « le changement qu’ils veulent voir dans le monde », à ne point attendre donc d’instances supérieures qu’elles accomplissent seules les réformes qui s’imposent, notamment parce que ...

(872 more words)

Revue

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Cognitive Biases: Between Necessity and Danger

Still as part of the series on the brain begun in this issue of Futuribles, Pascale Toscani, in the introduction to her article, raises a familiar question: why do we have to think before replying to a question that is put to us? The answer, she explains, is that “our brain works before us, before the information arrives in our consciousness,” because it is endowed with a capacity for anticipation based on everything it has registered in the past. But trawling our memories is not enough and the author shows us the frequent mismatch between question and response depending on the terms employed, on each person’s representations, on our cultural referents etc.

With the help of copious examples, Toscani alerts us to our cognitive biases, a deceptive, falsely logical from of thinking, which she aims, in part, to explain – first by describing in detail how babies’ brains are organized and operate and, second, how academic learning works. And, last, by taking up and delving deeper into the two systems of thought highlighted by Daniel Kahneman (automatic thought based on “procedural memory” and, by contrast, demanding reflective mental activity), in order to show the essential role intelligence plays in freeing us from received ideas and cognitive biases and enabling us to manage situations characterized by “cognitive dissonance”.

Revue

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Education: On the Proper Use of the Cognitive Sciences. Epistemological and Ethical Reflections

In the special dossier we are devoting in this issue to advances in research on the human brain and the contribution of that research to the development of educational practices – and, more generally, our capacities for learning – this article by Elena Pasquinelli is important for providing an opportune reminder that, though that research may contribute greatly to improving educational practices, we should remain vigilant towards so-called discoveries that are, in reality, unfounded.

After stressing the legitimate hopes that may be vested in this research, Pasquinelli warns us against false – or perhaps merely fashionable – beliefs in such things as “the Mozart Effect” (the idea that listening to classical music might improve our intelligence). She gives many examples of these “neuromyths”, as she calls them: widely believed theories that are not supported by any serious research. Ultimately, her article invites us to maintain a discerning stance on these matters, particularly where the links between science and teaching are concerned.

Revue

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Cognitive Sciences, Neurosciences and Education

A vital organ with levels of performance unrivalled among other living species, the human brain is a constant source of surprises. Substantial advances have been made in understanding its operation in recent decades. There is, however, much still to discover and explore, if we are to understand how human beings grow, reflect, think, learn, adapt, feel etc., and to advance in the ways of improving brain function (particularly in terms of learning) and repairing dysfunctions of whatever kind. This is why Futuribles has decided to begin 2019 with an issue devoted very largely to the human brain and, more specially, to advances in the cognitive sciences and neurosciences and their contributions to education and learning.

This article by Olivier Houdé lays out the – recent and doubtless still too limited – contributions of research in neurosciences and cognitive sciences to the field of education. Houdé particularly the stresses the importance of brain research, thanks to the observations of its in vivo functioning, for the understanding of children’s learning mechanisms. He puts especial emphasis on the two complementary forms of neurocognitive learning that are automation and control by inhibition (or “de-automation”). He explains how these show up in the brain and the thought systems that activate them. The advances in the understanding of these mechanisms have thus opened up new pathways in educational sciences.

Bibliography

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Le Cerveau et les apprentissages

Le Cerveau et les apprentissages

Ouvrage collectif associant une trentaine de contributeurs des plus réputés en sciences cognitives — auteurs ou coauteurs pour l’occasion de 12 chapitres et de 12 focus —, Le Cerveau et les apprentissages s’adresse à celles et ceux qui cherchent à comprendre comment et pourquoi la sortie, relativement récente, de la confidentialité des recherches in vivo sur le cerveau bouscule à ce point les poncifs et stéréotypes jusqu’à parfois proposer « la bonne façon » d’apprendre, donc d’enseigner. À l ...

(929 more words)

Bibliography

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Apprendre ! Les talents du cerveau, le défi des machines

Apprendre ! Les talents du cerveau, le défi des machines

Un socle génétique, notre ADN (acide désoxyribonucléique), composé de trois milliards de paires de nucléotides [1], sorte de « gros œuvre » qui détermine la mise en place d’un réseau d’au moins 86 milliards de neurones générant lui-même un potentiel de 1015 connexions synaptiques : voici en trois chiffres clefs, d’après l’auteur, le défi lancé aux experts du « machine learning » pour rivaliser avec les facultés humaines d’apprentissage. C’est ainsi que Stanislas Dehaene nous ramène à quelques évidences ...

(793 more words)

Note de veille

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Santé

L’apprentissage des mathématiques au plus jeune âge

Que d’épreuves pour le nouveau-né qui doit apprendre à connaître son environnement ! Reconnaître l’identité de sa mère, identifier son visage puis les autres visages et lire leurs émotions, comprendre la signification des sons et donner un sens au langage. Les neurosciences recherchent les outils dont il a hérité à la naissance pour accomplir ces performances : faire la part entre l’inné et l’acquis dans ces apprentissages. La recherche dans ce domaine a longtemps été orientée par les ...

(1297 more words)

Bibliography

Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Le Désastre de l’école numérique. Plaidoyer pour une école sans écrans

Le Désastre de l’école numérique. Plaidoyer pour une école sans écrans

Connu pour ses interventions en faveur des low-tech, Philippe Bihouix s’associe à Karine Mauvilly, enseignante et journaliste, pour l’écriture de ce pamphlet contre l’école numérique. L’ouvrage se présente d’abord comme la réaction de deux parents alertant l’opinion d’évolutions jugées délétères. Il entend remettre en cause des politiques scolaires obsédées par la question numérique et examiner un certain nombre d’idées reçues à ce sujet. Il pèche cependant à la fois par son caractère ...

(720 more words)

Note de veille

Éducation - Société, modes de vie

Vers la fin de l’écriture manuscrite ?

Depuis la rentrée 2015, en France, environ 600 collèges et écoles pilotes expérimentent progressivement de nouvelles formes d’enseignement et d’apprentissage grâce au numérique. La ministre de l’Éducation, se fondant sur l’« engouement des familles pour le numérique », vient de lancer le Plan pour le numérique à l’école [1] qui généralise cette pratique. S’agit-il seulement d’apprendre à maîtriser l’outil informatique, comme le recommande l’OCDE [2], qui s’inquiète néanmoins que les pays ayant ...

(1070 more words)

Revue

Éducation

Education: the Growing Impact of International Standards

The comparative educational studies carried out by various —public or private— international bodies have led to analyses and recommendations that have had an important influence on national or sub-national education policies. This is particularly the case with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Among other things, the OECD publishes annual indicators and, every three years, the results of evaluations carried out as part of its Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which has been profoundly influential in many countries. To which we should add, in the case of EU members, the studies and tools developed by the European Commission through its “Open Method of Coordination”.

In this article, Alain Michel analyses the extent to which the impact of PISA and European recommendations are leading to a certain homogenization of educational policies and curriculums (contents, objectives, modes of assessment, coordination…). He also asks how justified the criticism of the OECD is for its allegedly over-economistic vision of education, and examines the reality of the soft power that organization might be said to exert on national education policies —a power which is, admittedly, driving towards convergence, though without as yet actually standardizing educational systems.