Politique étrangère

Revue

Géopolitique - Société, modes de vie

La diplomatie vaticane à l’aube du XXIe siècle

The Roman Catholic Church -with a billion followers, the world's largest faith community -is stepping up its efforts to make an impact internationally. Jérôme Montes analyses the main forces behind Vatican diplomacy.
The Pope, he says, has a key role: his perception of the world determines the behaviour of his Church, which must continue to spread its influence but also, in a more recent development, wield greater political authority. The Pope must therefore be involved on all fronts and give direction to his pontificate.
The job of the Vatican diplomatic service is to make his views heard abroad. Radios, newspapers, television stations and the Internet are all used to spread the Pope's influence. In addition to the media, the Pope's travels have a strong political dimension and give him an international platform to express his opposition to racism, injustice and conflict.
As well as normal diplomatic channels, the Vatican also relies on new networks of a wide range of non-governmental actors whose mission is to defend human rights in the Pope's name, and who provide a fitting means of developing informal diplomatic links until such time as the Vatican can be fully integrated into the United Nations Organization. Lastly, the Church is keen to foster the ecumenical movement and inter-faith dialogue, and this must remain an important branch of Vatican diplomacy.
Montes concludes that the next Pope will have to redefine the Church's position in the world and, like John Paul II, will have to be a travelling pontiff, visible internationally and able to capture the attention of the world media if he wishes to tackle the challenges of modern times and the rise of fundamentalist movements.

Bibliography

Entreprises, travail - Géopolitique

UK International Priorities : A Strategy for the FCO

Le ministère britannique des Affaires étrangères vient de publier un document intitulé UK International Priorities: A Strategy for the FCO [Les priorités internationales du Royaume-Uni. Une stratégie pour le FCO]. C'est une grande première, pilotée par Simon Fraser, le directeur de la stratégie et de l'innovation du Foreign Office. Ce document explique que la Grande-Bretagne « fait face à un agenda global de problèmes partagés, qui affectent la sécurité et la prospérité du Royaume-Uni et des autres pays. Nous ...

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Géopolitique

Turkish Foreign Policy in an Age of Uncertainty

La Turquie est entrée dans le XXIe siècle en proie à la fois à l'agitation intérieure (crise économique intense, tensions politiques) et aux troubles d'un environnement régional et international en crise. Si, jusqu'à la fin de la guerre froide, ce pays a joué le rôle d'un rempart contre l'expansion soviétique vers la Méditerranée orientale et le Proche-Orient, la marge de manœuvre d'Ankara s'est depuis considérablement élargie alors que le pays ne regarde plus ...

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Revue

Géopolitique

De la politique étrangère américaine. Buffalo Bill contre Oussama ben Laden

There are more and more books about anti-Americanism in France, and it is true that in the emotional relationship between France and the United States, resentment and frustration on the part of weak for the strong have tended to generate criticisms in which denigration has long been the result more of ignorance than of arrogance. Today this anti-Americanism needs to be put in perspective, partly because the French (especially young people) have taken to travelling in the United States and therefore have less biased views than the older generation; but mainly because it is much too hasty to dismiss all critical analysis of American foreign policy as anti-American. Critical views are all the more legitimate given that there are commentators among both Democrats and Republicans in the United States who refuse to accept blindly the declarations of President George W. Bush in his crusade against the "axis of evil", in particular against Iraq under Saddam Hussein.
Moreover, it is important to be aware of and understand the deep roots of the unilateralism that the current US Administration pursues so aggressively and, beyond its historical and cultural origins, the influence that the Jacksonian tradition has always exerted to varying degrees in the design and implementation of American foreign policy. Admittedly, if America seems imperialist, argues Jean-Jacques Salomon, this is primarily due to Europe's inadequacies.
Since we cannot publish all of Walter Russell Mead's text, owing to lack of space, he summarizes certain passages, and stresses how far the temptation to act unilaterally derives from values and practices that are deeply rooted in popular attitudes: the code of honour and the religious belief in America's ability to win in any situation. The image of the cowboy, lone champion of good against Osama ben Laden or Saddam Hussein, reflects the whole mythology that inspired the western and that certain American commentators willingly invoke in criticizing the reservations and hesitations, if not the tendency to Munich-style appeasement, of their European allies.
This text is all the more revealing because it was originally published more than a year before the attacks of 11 September 2001. As with Pearl Harbor, it is not so much the actual number of people killed that explains the Jacksonian reaction in the United States, but rather the intense revulsion at the violation of the sanctuary. We are shown clearly a very different vision of the world to the one that prevailed in Washington during the Cold War, a vision in which the US can now manage without the support of allies, abandons its former alliances, challenges any international solidarity and intends to deal with terrorist opponents all by itself, defending only America's own interests. In this crusade, W.R. Mead suggests, oil is a far more important factor than compassion for the victims of Saddam Hussein. The two sides of the Atlantic are definitely no longer singing from the same hymn sheet. But if this article had been written by a Frenchman, would it not have been criticized as yet another example of anti-Americanism?

Bibliography

Géopolitique

Politique étrangère : nouveaux regards

Fin de la guerre froide, mondialisation des échanges, processus d'intégration régionale, essor de la dimension éthique, autant d'évolutions qui imposent de renouveler les approches concernant la politique étrangère. En ce début de XXIe siècle, qu'est-ce qu'une politique étrangère et comment la définir ? Y a-t-il même consensus sur l'objet de la politique étrangère ? Si « la politique étrangère reste bien l'instrument par lequel l'État tente de façonner son environnement politique international, [...] elle n'est plus ...

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Géopolitique

Organiser la politique européenne et internationale de la France

L'organisation de l'appareil de politique étrangère et européenne de la France est l'un des enjeux majeurs de la réforme de l’État. Le présent rapport vise notamment à améliorer la définition de la stratégie de la France et souligne le rôle déterminant de l'information. Il analyse, à tous les niveaux, les structures de coordination et de prise de décision en matière européenne et internationale et propose des pistes pour les améliorer. Il insiste aussi pour que ...

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Géopolitique

Reconcilable Differences. US-French Relations in the New Era

Cet ouvrage plaide pour une réanimation de l'alliance franco-américaine. Les tensions, bien que d'origine économique, tiennent à des différences conceptuelles. Les auteurs militent pour une meilleure connaissance et compréhension mutuelles, et tentent de convaincre les alliés d'agir ensemble.

Bibliography

Géopolitique

La Russie de Vladimir Poutine. L’héritier du despotisme oriental se tourne vers l’Occident

Le 11 septembre a accéléré le rapprochement de la Russie et de l'Occident. En manifestant sa solidarité immédiate avec les États-Unis, c'est dans le « nouveau cadre stratégique » souhaité par George W. Bush que Vladimir Poutine a placé la Russie : celle-ci a ouvert l'accès de certaines bases en Asie centrale pour combattre les Talibans, signé avec les États-Unis un accord de réduction drastique des arsenaux nucléaires des deux pays, participé à la création du forum OTAN-Russie. Mais cette ...

(102 more words)

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Géopolitique

The Making of Chinese Foreign and Security Policy in the Era of Reform

Same Bed, Different Dreams: Managing United States-China Relations, 1989-2000 (Berkeley : University of California Press, 2001, 510 p.), le dernier ouvrage de David M. Lampton, traitait des relations sino-américaines. L'auteur, directeur du programme d'études chinoises à la Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies et au Nixon Center de Washington, présente aujourd'hui un travail collectif qu'il a initié et dirigé depuis 1996 et qui étudie la politique étrangère de la république populaire de Chine (RPC) dans le ...

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Géopolitique

La PESC. Ouvrir l’Europe au monde

Ce deuxième ouvrage du Centre européen de Sciences Po analyse la Politique extérieure et de sécurité commune (PESC) des pays membres de l'Union européenne, à partir de la confrontation des points de vue de spécialistes d'origines différentes (France, Belgique, Italie et Portugal). Richement illustré (textes de référence, cartes, listes des actions et positions communes, chronologie, tableaux, etc.), il s'articule autour de trois points : contexte et perspectives, qui situe l'Europe dans son contexte international et confronte les ...

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Économie, emploi - Géopolitique

L’Afrique, notre avenir

Jacques Godfrain, ministre français de la Coopération de novembre 1995 à juin 1997, donne d'emblée le ton de l'ouvrage en intitulant son premier chapitre : « contre l'afro-pessimisme ». À travers le récit de sa propre expérience africaine, il montre d'abord une Afrique accueillante. Il met aussi en avant ses potentialités en termes de développement économique, soulignant la capacité du continent à tirer parti des dernières innovations technologiques, et rappelant que la croissance a repris, ces dernières années, dans ...

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Revue

Géopolitique

Géopolitique : l’idéalisme américain

Geopolitics: American Idealism
Pierre Béhar provides us with a critical futurist analysis of the treatise by Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy, which going beyond historical narrative reveals the very specific origins of United States foreign policy and illuminates geopolitical issues at the dawn of the twenty first century.
According to Kissinger, the diplomatic traditions of Europe and the United States are based on very different philosophies: Europe reasons following Richelieu in terms of "Raison d'État" and geopolitical power relationships: the United States applies to interstate relations the moral principles which should govern relations between individuals. Since Woodrow Wilson, American diplomacy has been based on "the certainty of a properly messianic mission", the inner conviction that it embodies an ideal moral order and must impose it on the whole world.
Kissinger explains this concept particularly by the geostrategic position of the United States. He also criticizes it without complacency by denouncing the imperialism of the American dream, its consequences, domestically and internationally. He shows the perverse effect of a policy blind to realities, sufficiently powerful to destabilize the world but insufficiently powerful to impose a universal moral order on it. Finally, starting from an analysis of the specific positions of the United States with respect to other countries and regions, Kissinger sketches a panorama of worldwide geopolitical evolution and shows how American diplomacy will have to renounce its universalist dreams and learn to live in a multipolar world.

Forum

Géopolitique

Considérations sur le rôle du Japon

Observations on Japan's Role
This special Futuribles issue on Japan no doubt raises more questions than it offers clear answers about Japan's future. The complementary points of view presented here reveal a situation which is at the same time paradoxical if not ambiguous.
Thus J.M. Bouissou underlines the Japanese feeling that they are under siege and at the same time their insistence on being seen as a "peace loving people". But, he adds, we cannot exclude that these beliefs may shatter and allow the paranoid side of Japan's relationship with the rest of the world to come to the surface.
Japanese-American relations are as rich as they are complex: governed by Japanese interests according to N. Sadria, they would in fact be, according to Z. Laidi, much more complex and marked simultaneously by conflict and cooperation. This conflict is illustrated by F. Joyaux who shows the different concepts of Japan's role, seen by Japan as at the heart of Asia Pacific and seen by the US as simply a border state. The cooperative aspect is illustrated by Guy Faure who shows how much Japan remains dependent on the US for high technology.
And as if to summarize the discussion, K. Yatabe emphasizes the extraordinary flexibility of the Japanese model and at the same time the great unforeseeability of this country's long term evolution.

Revue

Géopolitique

Le Japon puissance internationale « utile »

Japan: a "Useful" International Power
It has become obvious to Modjtaba Sadria that Japan will become a great power, not only by acquiring the classic means but also by adding a new characteristic to power: utility.
The "usefulness" of Japan will come from its unavoidability but also mainly because it will have a "unique ability to respond to various needs of its Asiatic partners", including its Chinese ones, with whom it will have to develop partnering relationships.

Revue

Géopolitique

Le Japon face au monde. Quel cadre pour une puissance qui se cherche ?

Japan and the World. What Framework for a Power Defining Itself ?
Japan's approach to integrating itself into its regional and global environment is determined by three factors: a collective mythology marked by a simultaneous attraction to and repulsion from others; the gap between its economic power and diplomatic and military weakness, thus between power and meaning; and finally the double temptation of pacifism and involvement.
Taking account of these factors, Jean-Marie Bouissou sketches three scenarios illustrating the possible position of Japan on the international scene:
- Under the first option Japan would become a traditional superpower acquiring autonomous military power and seeking to base its ideological leadership on the region.
- Lacking the means necessary for a neoimperialist role, it could ensure its rise to power in an integrated regional framework (co-development and regional security system), but it would then risk confrontation with China.
- Finally, it could try to position itself as a "global power" benefitting from its economic strength and its intermediary position between Asia and the West.
The realisation of one or another of these scenarios will depend on internal and external factors which the author briefly analyses, concluding in favour of a strategy which combines these different options.

Forum

Géopolitique - Institutions

Pour une réforme de l’Union européenne

À l'occasion de la conférence intergouvernementale européenne (CIG) de 1996 — qui se déroulera en plusieurs étapes —, un groupe de réflexion sur les structures de l'Europe de la Fondation Bertelsmann a réalisé un rapport 1 sur les mesures à prendre pour tenir compte de l'élargissement de l'Europe et corriger son insuffisance démocratique.

Revue

Géopolitique - Institutions

L’équilibre des « petits « et des « grands « dans l’Union européenne

Balancing the "Large" and the "Small" in the European Union
The Intergovernmental Conference of1996 will unavoidably rekindle the issue of the composition of Europe, which has opposed for a long time the (demographically) "small" to the "large" members of the Union. The former defend the principle of equality among states regardless of demographic weight; the latter are reluctant to give majority power to the relatively large number of "small" states.
R. Toulemon examines here some juridical institutions which might satisfy these contradictory demands, equitably and effectively. But he also points beyond this issue to the more important debate on the different ideas surrounding the European project and the objectives pursued by present and potential member states.
Toulemon remains faithful to the ideas he has always defended, making the case for a Union which should go further and adopt an internal and external common policy. Only this will prevent a desirable expansion of the Union from turning into its deliquescence.

Forum

Géopolitique

L’Algérie au coeur des passions françaises

Face à la vague de terrorisme qui frappe la France, à l'angoisse de ceux qui craignent que la violence en Algérie enflamme nos banlieues, il est naturel que la priorité soit donnée aux préoccupations sécuritaires. Mais celles-ci ne sauraient constituer, affirme Bernard Stasi, l'essentiel de la politique française à l'égard de l'Algérie et des Algériens. En effet, "s'il n'appartient pas à la France de faire ou de défaire les gouvernements algériens (...), il est de ...

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Revue

Géopolitique

Allemagne : quelle politique étrangère ?

Cinq ans après l'unification allemande, quelles sont la position de l'Allemagne en Europe et ses priorités en matière de poltique étrangère ? En dépit de certaines craintes que pouvaient entretenir ses alliés, l'Allemagne demeure plus que jamais attachée à l'édification d'une Union européenne, non seulement économique et monétaire mais aussi politique (ceci n'impliquant pas qu'elle prenne une forme fédérale) dont l'approfondissement constitue un prélable indispensable à son élargissement à l'Est. Consciente en ...

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