Politique de défense

Bibliography

Géopolitique

Grand Strategy for India

Cet ouvrage est tiré d’une conférence sur la stratégie de défense et de sécurité en Inde, qui s’est tenue à l’IDSA en décembre 2010. Elle a marqué le début de l’IDSA National Strategy Project (INSP), dont l’objectif principal est de renforcer les outils de l’analyse stratégique en Inde grâce à une approche interdisciplinaire, en favorisant le dialogue entre experts spécialistes des questions indiennes et experts en relations internationales, en économie, en stratégie... Suite aux ...

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Note de veille

Société, modes de vie

« Serment d’allégeance aux armes » et évolutions de l’opinion

La proposition récemment amenée dans le débat public d’un « serment d’allégeance aux armes » n’a pas manqué de faire polémique. Petites phrases, affirmations péremptoires, tout peut être utilisé afin de soutenir, de contester ou d’ironiser. Mais qu’en pensent les premiers concernés ? Que peut-on valablement dire d’un tel sujet à partir des évolutions structurelles de l’opinion ?

Tribune européenne

Entreprises, travail - Géopolitique - Institutions

External Policy: Impotent Europe – The Battle for a European Military Headquarters

With the economic and financial crisis on the one hand, and the regional instability caused by the Arab spring on the southern rim of the Mediterranean on the other, Europe finds itself faced with a particularly tricky geopolitical and economic context. Unfortunately, as Jean-François Drevet shows here, the more serious the situation has become, the less the member states of the European Union have provided themselves with the means to confront it jointly and hence, the lower their chances of success would seem to be.
This is attested, in particular, by the Union’s inability to establish a single command structure to manage the operations planned as part of the common defence and security policy, despite the fact that there is a consensus on this in public opinion in the various member states. Whereas the Union has, in theory, an adequate legal basis in this area and the political and technical means to implement it (through the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy), in practice the member states continue to reason on a case-by-case basis in terms of their own interests. Europe is, in fact, very ill-equipped. It cannot depend indefinitely on the Atlantic Alliance to provide its defence and its options are seriously hobbled by the United Kingdom (of which the High Representative, who is supposed to embody the common external policy, is a national).
Above and beyond the concrete security problems potentially present in such a situation, this impasse is emblematic of the current operation of the Union, “dominated by the vagaries of a variable-geometry intergovernmental cooperation” that is still not properly facing up to present and future challenges.

Chapitre de rapport annuel vigie

Institutions

Chapitre 10 du rapport Vigie 2010 : Institutions et politiques publiques

PARTIE 1 : INSTITUTIONS INTERNATIONALES Tendance 1 : Des institutions internationales moins représentatives Tendance 2 : Montée en puissance des organisations ad hoc Tendance 3 : Influence croissante des acteurs privés Tendance 4 : Régionalisation du monde Incertitude 1 : Fin du système de sécurité collective ? Incertitude 2 : Renforcement des institutions financières multilatérales ? Incertitude 3 : Faiblesse de l’aide publique au développement ? PARTIE 2 : L’UNION EUROPÉENNE ET SES MARGES Tendance 1 : L’élargissement contrarié Tendance 2 : La politique européenne de voisinage limitée Tendance 3 : Faiblesse ...

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Revue

Géopolitique

Maritime Piracy in Perspective

Acts of piracy have made a significant media impact in France recently, following attacks on several vessels, particularly in the Gulf of Aden, with both commercial shipping and private yachts being targeted. Acts of piracy are, in fact, on the increase in various sea areas (e.g. to the East of Somalia). Why this new upsurge? What has been the impact on the maritime world and how is it to face up to this threat?
Cédric Prévost, who has made a study of the question, assesses the state of maritime piracy and outlines the possible trends developing within it. After reviewing the factors which contribute to the development of piracy (sea traffic, lack of security at sea, the fragility of certain states, poverty etc.), he highlights the major issues surrounding this "low-intensity threat". He first reminds us that this is a risk the shipping companies regard as low, by comparison with the many others they have to manage, even though the security of energy supplies (which is potentially threatened) may change matters in that regard. He recalls also that piracy can be seen as part of a wider circle of criminal activities playing a part in the destabilization of certain regions. In this sense, the phenomenon could spread as a result of the emergence of "career pirates". Lastly, he proposes a series of possible responses to the threat - fighting it at sea, international cooperation, improving maritime security - and ends by casting particular light on the question with respect to France.

Revue

Géopolitique

France: From Defence to Security. On the Defence and National Security White Paper

In June 2008 the French Ministry of Defence published a very eagerly awaited Defence and National Security White Paper. It was the aim of this document to specify France's defence policy and the prospects for its development in the current European and international context.
The White Paper was eagerly awaited because the preceding framework document of this kind dated back to 1994 and the operational context has changed greatly in the intervening years (9/11 attacks, wars in Iraq and Afghanistan etc.).
Unfortunately, the White Paper has not met all expectations, as General Éric de La Maisonneuve points out in this article. Though it confirms the transformation of the French defence system into an instrument of national security in the broad sense of the term, based on the professionalization of French forces, it fails to provide a proper conceptual framework, either by taking into account the new threats that arise or France's role within the European defence framework and in international collective security structures.

Tribune européenne

Géopolitique

European Defence and the New Threats Facing It

Though the European states came together after the Second World War out of a concern to avoid further conflict and to bring peace to the Old Continent, questions of defence have also been the weak link in the building of Europe. This was the case from the very beginning, with France rejecting the idea of a European Defence Community in the early 1950s - a move that led those promoting the community project to favour the option of a distinctly more gradual form of European construction.
Within the Cold War context, and as a result of the protection of the Atlantic Alliance, the idea of common defence within the European Union made little headway. However, given an enlarged Union - its territory now reaching as far as the conflict zones of Georgia and the Balkans - a Russia with potentially bellicose intentions, and a United States somewhat weakened by its recent foreign policy decisions, a different situation prevails today. In this article, Jean-François Drevet shows in what ways European defence capacity has become a problem. He outlines the emergence from 1998 onwards of a "Defence Europe" and the long road still to be travelled before Europe has a genuine common defence policy and the operational tools to make it credible.

Forum

Géopolitique

Towards a Strategic Vision for the French Defence Budget

In spring 2008, a White Paper is due to be published in France on defence and national security. One of the objectives set by the President of the Republic for this document is the thoroughgoing reform of the Ministry of Defence. In this article, Marie Badey-André and Anne-François de Saint Salvy, who have a thorough knowledge of French security issues and of the operation of the defence ministry, express their concern at the way the French defence establishment is currently organized and financed, and call for the urgent development of a strategic vision for the defence budget.
In the first instance, they stress the imperative need for a political vision for defence that takes account both of the new status of France (as a middle-ranking power in a globalized system) and the necessary recourse to multilateral structures (particularly those of the European Union) to maintain a strategic position internationally. They go on to call for a strategic management of the defence budget that has the courage to make choices on the future shape of the French defence establishment. Lastly, they propose various courses of action to achieve this, which consist essentially in removing the structural administrative encumbrances the Defence Ministry has to contend with (for example, by promoting joint thinking between the finance and defence ministries).
At the time of going to press in early April, the White Paper had not been published, though, even if it had, no decisions concerning budgets would have been taken. There is every chance, then, that this call for strategic thinking ahead of decisions on French defence spending will succeed in making itself heard.

Analyse prospective

Géopolitique

L’augmentation du budget de la défense chinoise

Le 4 mars 2007, la Chine a annoncé pour 2007 un budget militaire de 45 milliards de dollars, une augmentation de 17,8 % par rapport à 2006. La croissance spectaculaire du budget de la défense se poursuit depuis 10 ans et permet le renforcement quantitatif et qualitatif des forces armées chinoises. L'objectif affiché par les autorités d'un " développement pacifique " n'interdit pas de poser la question des intentions chinoises dans une situation internationale marquée par l'écrasante suprématie ...

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Bibliography

Géopolitique

Rising Star. China’s New Security Diplomacy

Bates Gill est l'un des meilleurs spécialistes des questions internationales liées à l'Asie orientale. Il a notamment codirigé le premier volume du projet China: The Balance Sheet, publié en 2006 (cf. BP n°40, juillet-août 2006). « Étoile montante dans la constellation des grandes puissances, la Chine et sa nouvelle diplomatie de sécurité représentent des opportunités et des défis essentiels pour la communauté internationale, pour la région Asie-Pacifique, et pour les États-Unis ». Tel est le point de départ de ...

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Bibliography

Géopolitique

Préparer les engagements de demain. 2035

Ce document s'inscrit dans l'effort de prospective du ministère français de la Défense piloté par la Délégation aux affaires stratégiques (DAS). Il est le fruit d'une étude conjointe à la DAS et à l'État-major des armées sur les situations opérationnelles auxquelles les armées françaises pourraient être confrontées au cours des 30 prochaines années. Le document s'ouvre sur une analyse des mutations de la notion d'intérêt de la France et de l'Union européenne. Il ...

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Bibliography

Géopolitique - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

National Security and the Threat of Climate Change

Ce rapport a été rédigé avec l'aide de 11 officiers supérieurs de la marine américaine pour tenter d'évaluer les menaces que le changement climatique fait peser sur la sécurité des États-Unis. Il est intéressant de noter qu'il est loin d'être le premier à traiter de ce sujet aux États-Unis et en Grande-Bretagne, alors que la question semble toujours paraître peu sérieuse pour les milieux français de la défense. Espérons qu'elle sera abordée par la Commission ...

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Revue

Géopolitique

A Pioneer of the Military-industrial Complex. Thoughts on Daniel Charles, Between Genius and Genocide (London: Pimlico, Random House, 2006) and David Vandermeulen, L'Esprit du temps. Fritz Haber (Brus

Not everyone who changed history is regarded as a hero by later ages. One such is the German scientist Fritz Haber, who seems to embody the two sides of scientific progress, both bringing improvements to human life and endangering it.
A Jew who became a Protestant, he began his scientific career by wishing to preserve humanity from possible famine and finding an efficient way of synthesizing ammonia. But very soon he devoted his research to developing gases and explosives to help the German war effort in World War I. After the war he was accused of war crimes but nonetheless received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1919. He went on to invent Zyklon gas, which was later used by the Nazis to exterminate the Jews.
Two recent books try to capture the personality of this scientist via two different literary forms: Daniel Charles has written a straight biography whereas David Vandermeulen has produced a comic strip version. Jean-Jacques Salomon presents and comments on the two books, reminding us of the main events in Fritz Haber's life and the repercussions they had for the whole of the human race.

Analyse prospective

Géopolitique

L’Amérique en guerre

La publication de la Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) est considérée par les spécialistes des questions internationales et de sécurité et défense comme un " temps fort " de la pensée stratégique américaine. Ce document synthétique est censé encadrer líaction du Department of Defense (DoD), et en particulier sa gestion des hommes et des matériels, sa planification des programmes díarmement prioritaires et sa programmation budgétaire pour les quatre années suivantes. La publication de la QDR 2006 était très attendue pour plusieurs raisons : - il ...

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Bibliography

Géopolitique

The Defence Industry Sector - What Future ?

Cette série de trois rapports disponibles en ligne s'intéresse à l'avenir de l'industrie de défense au niveau européen. Le premier texte définit le secteur européen de l'industrie de défense, sa taille, sa structure et son volume d'emploi et ses grandes caractéristiques, le deuxième étudie plus en détail les tendances et facteurs de changement essentiels, enfin le troisième soulève un certain nombre d'enjeux et de défis pour le futur. Sans offrir d'innovation réelle dans ...

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Revue

Géopolitique

The Failure of Homeland Security in the United States

Almost four years after 9/11, America is still traumatized and many are haunted by the fear of further terrorist attacks. In order to cope with this concern with security the United States administration has created a ministry unlike any other in the world - the Department for Homeland Security - which pursues a very strict policy of internal security, mainly geared to keeping most of the American population in a state of heightened alert.
Benjamin Friedman offers here a highly critical assessment of this policy, arguing that the country's leaders have developed a state of generalized fear that plays into the hands of the terrorists while giving Americans an illusion of safety. In his view, the homeland security policy is too ambitious, exaggerates some threats and encourages unnecessary fearfulness by asking people to prepare for a terrorist attack when in fact they run little risk of being victims. To this end, vast sums are spent ill-advisedly, indirectly preventing the funding of measures which would be far more worthwhile, including for American domestic security.
He ends the article by advising that it is essential to shake off this paranoia. The terrorist threat does exist but it is limited geographically and would probably be better prevented if this fact were taken into account. What is needed, therefore, is to introduce greater realism into the homeland security policy and accept that, come what may, there is no such thing as zero risk, now or probably ever.

Revue

Géopolitique

"Human Security": a New Doctrine for Europe

Frequently described as a "geopolitical dwarf", Europe is still trying to define its role on the international stage. The European Union has huge assets as an actor in international affairs (the diplomatic services of the member countries, its important role in development aid, its mastery of multilateral issues, etc.) but also some weaknesses that have often proved fatal (a lack of means on the ground as well as of political will at the top, disagreements among member states, a tendency to react too slowly...).
The major trauma of the experience in the Balkans in the 1990s, from Sarajevo to Pristina, made everyone aware that Europe could not be content just with talking about international affairs. On the other hand, Europeans are uncomfortable with the concept of power, to the point where some argue that Europe could never be a "civilian power" on the world stage. What can be done to preserve the special nature of the European view of international relations, based on something other than sheer brute strength (which made the neoconservative Robert Kagan write that America is from Mars and Europe is from Venus...(Paradise and Power: America versus Europe in the 21st Century, 2003), while making Europe credible as a force to be reckoned with in a turbulent world?
One of the avenues that needs to be explored undoubtedly lies in a redefinition of the notions of security and defence, which are still shaped too much by concepts of territory and inter-state relations left over from the Cold War. The idea of global security, or human security, is a key element in establishing the base that the European Union needs if it is ever to have the means to achieve its ambitions. Geneviève Schméder outlines the contribution made in this regard in a report for Javier Solana, the EU's defence chief, by a group of independent experts (A Human Security Doctrine for Europe. Report of the Study Group on Europe's Security Capabilities, presented to the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy, Javier Solana, Barcelona, 15 September 2004).

Bibliography

Entreprises, travail - Géopolitique

Prospective, défense et surprise stratégique. Le stratège, l’improbable et l’inattendu

Prospective et défense sont depuis longtemps intimement liées : la première trouve naturellement dans la seconde un terreau fertile à son développement, notamment dans sa capacité à offrir un cadre à la planification militaire dans un environnement forcément complexe et imprévisible. Certaines des approches méthodologiques modernes de la prospective ont d'ailleurs pour origine des réflexions d'ordre militaire (aux États-Unis, par exemple, dès les années 1950, au sein du projet RAND). Au-delà des relations entre prospective et défense, l'auteur ...

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Chapitre de rapport annuel vigie

Institutions

Chapitre 5 du rapport Vigie 2004 : Vers une Europe forte ou fragmentée ?

Longtemps considérée comme une utopie, la construction européenne a désormais derrière elle une histoire de plus de 50 ans. De la CECA au Traité constitutionnel, en passant par le traité de Rome, l'Acte unique et les traités de Maastricht, d'Amsterdam et de Nice, elle a poursuivi son chemin et instauré progressivement un système politique supranational. Cependant, alors que nous sommes peut-être à la veille de l'adoption d'une Constitution, l'Union européenne (UE) est restée, selon les ...

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