L’alunissage récent de Chang’é 4 sur la face cachée de la Lune est le prélude à l’installation d’une station chinoise habitée de recherches lunaires et, dans un avenir indéfini, à l’exploitation du sous-sol terrestre et marin. La progression chinoise sur d’autres « territoires litigieux » en milieu hostile que la Lune permet d’imaginer la suite. En mer de Chine du Sud, des îlots inhabités ont été transformés en véritables garnisons, tandis que dans l’Antarctique ...
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The American Model, Comments on "Why the American Century?"
Henri Mendras gives here a brief analysis of the last book by Olivier Kunz: Why the American Century? which, he thinks, explains remarkably well why the United States is such a power.
He applies himself to define the specifics of the American model: the rise of the middle class, the priority given to collective action, the "social evangelism", and eventually, the creation of a happy synergy between research, industry and concern for the common good which, for example, pushes industry barons to become mecenes and philanthropists.
Reality of the American Challenge
In 1967 Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber gathered the views of a dozen or so European experts and published The American Challenge. The message was a stern warning to Europeans that they were in danger of being transformed into satellites of the United States, which then held a commanding lead in information technology.
One of those experts was Michel Albert, who has taken a critical second look at the book three decades later. His first observation is that we have not witnessed the flight of American investments from Europe, and that the countries of the old continent have pulled themselves up to the same level of development as the United States. On the other hand, he emphasizes that Europe has not understood how to cope with the social challenge posed by the post-industrial revolution, in spite of its exemplary social aspirations. In Albert's analysis this defect is due to the lack of a common industrial, economic and social policy.
The American Challenge has receded, therefore, and the real challenge for Europe, beyond the single market and common currency, is to construct a real federal union.
Geopolitics: American Idealism
Pierre Béhar provides us with a critical futurist analysis of the treatise by Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy, which going beyond historical narrative reveals the very specific origins of United States foreign policy and illuminates geopolitical issues at the dawn of the twenty first century.
According to Kissinger, the diplomatic traditions of Europe and the United States are based on very different philosophies: Europe reasons following Richelieu in terms of "Raison d'État" and geopolitical power relationships: the United States applies to interstate relations the moral principles which should govern relations between individuals. Since Woodrow Wilson, American diplomacy has been based on "the certainty of a properly messianic mission", the inner conviction that it embodies an ideal moral order and must impose it on the whole world.
Kissinger explains this concept particularly by the geostrategic position of the United States. He also criticizes it without complacency by denouncing the imperialism of the American dream, its consequences, domestically and internationally. He shows the perverse effect of a policy blind to realities, sufficiently powerful to destabilize the world but insufficiently powerful to impose a universal moral order on it. Finally, starting from an analysis of the specific positions of the United States with respect to other countries and regions, Kissinger sketches a panorama of worldwide geopolitical evolution and shows how American diplomacy will have to renounce its universalist dreams and learn to live in a multipolar world.
Cultural Decolonisation. A Major Challenge for the 21st Century
This article constitutes the introduction of Mahdi Elmandjra's new book: "Cultural Decolonisation, A Major Challenge for the 21st Century".
Faithful to the ideas that the author has been defending for several decades, this text emphasizes the importance of cultural diversity and the necessity of respecting it as a preamble to any intercultural dialogue. He denounces the threat to this diversity from the hegemonic will of the Occident, most particularly of the United States. This is a big challenge to any country which aspires to cultural independence.
L'invasion de l'Afghanistan a créé en Europe une soudaine émotion, alors qu'elle n'est que le reflet d'une longue et évidente politique d'expansion soviétique. Face aux défis mondiaux et à la stratégie des super-puissances, l'Europe - en dépit de ses atouts - reste hésitante. À défaut d'un noyau fédérateur et d'une volonté politique réelle, elle sombre dans l'inertie et le neutralisme.