Groupes ethniques

Note de veille

Population - Société, modes de vie

Les Français de moins en moins xénophobes

À la question « Pensez-vous qu’une lutte vigoureuse contre le racisme est nécessaire en France ? », les Français répondent sans ambiguïté : « oui tout à fait » (46 %) ou « oui plutôt » (30 %), soit 76 % de réponses positives. Seuls 7 % répondent « pas du tout », selon un sondage réalisé en 2018 dans le cadre du rapport de la Commission nationale consultative des droits de l’homme (CNCDH) [1]. Ces réponses ont le mérite d’être claires. Reste qu’une enquête à un moment donné, la ...

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Note de veille

Population - Société, modes de vie

La population musulmane en Europe, 2010-2050

Dès qu’il s’agit de population musulmane, les chiffres les plus fantaisistes ont droit de cité. Le crédit qui leur est accordé tient plus aux a priori qu’ils confirment qu’au sérieux avec lequel ils ont été établis. Ainsi, les données diffusées à partir de l’enquête téléphonique de la TNS-Sofres de 2007 auprès des 15 ans ou plus [1] plaisent beaucoup à ceux qui veulent à tout prix minimiser la présence musulmane en France : 3 % dont 32 ...

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Analyse prospective

Population - Société, modes de vie

États-Unis : démographie dynamique et cohésion sociale problématique

Alors que le continent européen fait face à un vieillissement croissant de sa population et doit compter sur les flux migratoires pour maintenir ses équilibres démographiques à moyen-long terme, les États-Unis, à l’inverse, continuent de faire preuve d’un dynamisme démographique que beaucoup estiment enviable. Et certes, comme le montre ici Julien Damon, la croissance démographique américaine se porte bien, ce qui constitue un facteur positif pour les évolutions socio-économiques à venir ; néanmoins, le profil de la population américaine ...

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Population - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Tools for Measuring Segregation

With the rise of the Front National, the unearthing of hotbeds of Jihadism and polemics around whether there is social, or even ethnic, apartheid in certain districts, France has, since the January 2015 terrorist attacks, seen an increased level of debate on the existence of social ghettos and the sociology of the individuals who might live in them. And yet, as Bernard Aubry and Michèle Tribalat show here, there are very few reliable figures on which to build an argument one way or another, particularly regarding the origins of the population groups concerned. And the traditional indicators, supposing that they exist and are backed up correctly by the demographic surveys, are not necessarily the most pertinent for observing the sociological evolution of a population in a particular territory and its potential segregation. Drawing on a recent analysis carried out in the USA, Aubry and Tribalat show the relevance and importance of so-called neighbourhood segregation indicators that make it possible to assess the concentration of populations (on a socioprofessional or communal basis) much more subtly and in very precise geographical detail. Using old data available in France, they explain how these kinds of indicators could be developed in that country and what information they would be capable of providing. At the same time, they deprecate the scant interest shown in this by the official statistical institutes, if not indeed their hostility to it. This is an impasse which is, to say the least, deplorable, since whatever the positions defended by the various parties to the debates cited above, they need to be supported by precise data, as it is only on the basis of such data that appropriate political responses can be proposed.


Géopolitique - Société, modes de vie

Tolerance and Xenophobia in Europe : Are “Cultural Areas” still Relevant?

Several countries, having been faced for over five years with a serious economic crisis that has grave social consequences, have seen the growth of populist political parties with, in many cases, xenophobic overtones. But do these political expressions echo the trends in Europeans’ values and behaviour with regard to tolerance and xenophobia? It seems not, at least up to 2008, the date of the last survey of European values, as analysed here by Guillaume Roux.

Roux begins by drawing up a geographical chart of tolerance in Europe: the values of tolerance are everywhere in the majority, but the levels are highest in Northern Europe and lowest in Southern Europe and in the former Soviet bloc countries, with Western Europe presenting a more mixed profile. Over the last two decades, these seem to be durable differences, even though, in general, the values of tolerance have progressed in many countries (doubtless in connection with increased individualization) and the homogeneity of Western Europe is a little diminished by comparison with 1990.

Roux goes on to analyse Europeans’ behaviour towards ethnic minorities (preference for the employment of nationals and xenophobia). Even though the situation varies greatly from one country to another, we find a geographical distribution similar to that for tolerance, with the countries of northern Europe showing the least xenophobic attitudes in 2008 and those in the south and the former Soviet bloc having the most xenophobic behaviour. Generally, over a long period (1990-2008), the trend is for xenophobia to decline, but the coherence between the values of tolerance and attitudes towards ethnic minorities remains stable, confirming the partially cultural dimension of positioning with regard to xenophobia. 

Tribune européenne


Europe and the Roma

Examination of this question is prompted by the polemic unleashed by the hardening of French internal policy towards the Roma. That polemic is taking place in a context of occasional rejection of foreigners on the part of certain nationals of EU member states and also the opening-up of the Schengen space in the near future (though no date has yet been set) to Romania and Bulgaria, a move which may speed up the migratory flows of Roma into Western Europe.

Jean-François Drevet focuses on this question here, recalling first the extent to which the Roma are still discriminated against, despite being present for centuries on the continent of Europe. He goes on to show how member state governments have attempted to circumvent community legislation in order to remove the Roma from their territory; he particularly stresses the attitude of France, which has openly flouted community rules, compounding treaty noncompliance with arrogance. He concludes by asserting the usefulness of international organizations like the European Union, which possess institutions capable of enforcing rules that states have accepted but pretend to have forgotten (particularly with regard to respect for human rights) – and of doing so even if the relevant procedures may prove very time-consuming.

Note de veille

Population - Société, modes de vie

Clivages et perspectives ethniques aux États-Unis

Les questions et tensions ethniques aux États-Unis sont loin d’être réglées. Elles sont cependant, au moins dans les opinions, en voie d’apaisement. C’est heureux, dans un contexte de grandes transformations qui devraient conduire l’ensemble des minorités à devenir, au total, majoritaires, devant les blancs, à l’horizon 2050.

Note de veille

Population - Société, modes de vie

La difficile intégration des jeunes latinos dans la société américaine

Aux États-Unis, un enfant sur cinq est « latino ». Si les conditions de vie de ces jeunes d’origine latinoaméricaine se sont globalement améliorées au cours des dernières années, ils sont de plus en plus nombreux à souffrir de la pauvreté et de difficultés d’intégration dans la société américaine, comme le révèle une étude menée à l’échelle nationale.