Extrémisme

Forum

Institutions - Société, modes de vie

A Whiff of Fascism(s) in the Air: On the Use of Lying in Politics

At the European elections of May 2019, the parties of the extreme Right tripled their seats in the European Parliament by comparison with 2014. This result confirms that more or less all over Europe ultra-nationalist and populist parties are making progress and using the democratic process to move in on the institutions that govern us. Nevertheless, we should not have any illusions about the profiles of these parties, as André-Yves Portnoff shows here, drawing on the Italian example: their only democratic arguments are window-dressing and they are expert in the manipulation of crowds and truth. This is how it is with the Italian neo-fascists who, through an idiosyncratic rewriting of history and of the Mussolinian past, peddle falsehoods and employ disinformation to attract votes, while maintaining systems of collusion and corruption very far distant from the virtuous conduct they claim to advocate. This Forum aims to dissect these stratagems and to warn of methods that might rapidly spread to other extremist groups.

Revue

Institutions - Société, modes de vie

The Rise of Populisms: Origins and Particularities of the Populist Movements — Their Political Success

The rise of populist movements — particularly in Western countries that are supposed to embody the democratic ideal — and, indeed, the accession to power of some of their leaders, are rightly prompting serious concern and much soul-searching. How are we to explain this phenomenon? What features are shared by these movements and, conversely, what constitutes their special nature in the various countries? This is the first theme that has been chosen to give substance to the cooperation agreement established, on the initiative of Najat Vallaud-Belkacem between Ipsos, of which she is general director with responsibility for “International Research and Social Innovation”, and Futuribles.

This article by Henri Wallard, which draws on surveys and studies carried out by the Ipsos institute, begins by reminding us what the term populism covers. He then shows that, though populisms have common features and base their action on certain preferred themes, they are nonetheless very diverse and have to be analysed with an eye to the history, culture and socio-economic and political context of each country. This is borne out, Wallard argues, by the cases analysed here — the USA, Italy and the UK.

“There is no rise of populism,” writes Wallard, “but rather an emergence of different individual populist movements.” This is not, however, a reason to underestimate the danger they represent.

Editorial

Économie, emploi - Géopolitique - Institutions

Crise en Occident

L’élection de Donald Trump à la présidence des États-Unis et les premières mesures qu’il a annoncées depuis son entrée en fonction suscitent une légitime inquiétude et bien des questions. Comment expliquer que la plus grande démocratie du monde (certes à l’exception de l’Inde) tombe de la sorte entre les mains d’un tel démagogue ? Que la première puissance, longtemps gardienne de l’ordre mondial malgré les nombreux revers de sa politique étrangère, devienne ainsi un tel ...

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Note de veille

Géopolitique - Institutions

Perspectives de l’islam radical en Asie

Après la bataille de Mossoul, le groupe État islamique (EI) va tenter de se refaire en Asie où vivent près d’un milliard de musulmans. Une stratégie fondée non seulement sur l’action violente mais sur l’utilisation missionnaire des combattants du Moyen-Orient et des travailleurs du Golfe de retour dans leurs pays d’origine, et le recrutement de jeunes musulmans discriminés, notamment en Inde. Le chemin sera tortueux, car sans même compter les armées occidentales, l’EI devra affronter ...

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Editorial

Géopolitique - Institutions

Le vide politique

Avant toute chose, j’adresse ici à nos lectrices et à nos lecteurs nos meilleurs vœux pour cette année 2016, en formant l’espoir qu’ils deviennent eux-mêmes les acteurs du changement qu’ils souhaitent voir intervenir dans leur pays et dans le monde. Jamais, en effet, ne m’a semblé plus pertinente l’assertion d’Alexis de Tocqueville affirmant que « la force collective des citoyens sera toujours plus puissante pour produire le bien-être social que l’autorité d’un ...

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CR table ronde

Les démocraties occidentales face à la montée des extrémismes

Le lundi 12 octobre 2015 s'est déroulée à Futuribles International une table ronde, introduite par Pascal Perrineau, sur « Les démocraties occidentales face à la montée des extrémismes ». II répondait aux questions d'Hugues de Jouvenel quelques minutes avant cette table ronde.

Editorial

Géopolitique - Institutions

L’Europe en péril ?

Les élections municipales qui se sont déroulées les 23 et 29 mars en France ont sévèrement sanctionné le gouvernement, récemment qualifié de social-démocrate, mis en place au lendemain de l’élection du président François Hollande. Le taux d’abstention a atteint un niveau record (63,70 %), ceci témoignant, une fois de plus du discrédit dont souffrent les partis politiques [1]. Cent cinquante-cinq villes de plus de 9 000 habitants, dont une soixantaine de plus de 30 000, ont basculé de ...

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Tribune européenne

Géopolitique - Institutions

The Emergence of a European Neo-Populism

2014 is an important year for the European Union. For the ninth time since 1979 the citizens of its member states will, in May of this year, elect the members to represent them in the European Parliament. Given proportional representation and a socio-economic context prevailing in Europe over the last six years that is, to say the least, tense, there is every risk that the ranks of the parties of the extreme Right will swell. This is to be expected since, as Jean-François Drevet shows here, “neo-populist” movements have grown in strength just about everywhere on the continent in the last few years, whether the countries concerned have been in crisis or not, and they are tending to converge beyond their respective national boundaries, both through their critique of how the EU operates and their defence of “Western identity”. If we add to this the political weakness of governing parties with regard to questions of religion and identity, and the way nationalist extremists and fundamentalist Muslim groups have effectively boosted each other’s fortunes, there is good reason to wonder what the outcome of the coming elections will be, what impact this will have on social cohesion in the various countries of the Union and what the consequences may be for the functioning of European institutions.

Note de veille

Géopolitique

Un pouvoir islamiste au Maroc ?

« Le Maroc sera islamiste (sauf miracle….ou petit tour de passe-passe du Palais) ». Tel était le titre de la première page de l’hebdomadaire Telquel (numéro 497) publié au Maroc, la semaine précédant la consultation électorale du 25 novembre 2011. Ce numéro annonçait la victoire probable du Parti de la justice et du développement (PJD) et l’appel par le Roi à son leader Abdelilah Benkirane pour diriger le gouvernement était envisagé. Quelles analyses peut-on faire a posteriori de cette ...

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Revue

Institutions

How Is Xenophobia Changing in France ?

The fact that the candidate of the far Right-wing Party, Jean-Marie Le Pen, reached the second-round run-off in the election for French President on 21 April 2002 made a big impression on everyone in France. Against a background of social unrest and disillusionment with the main political parties, around 17% of the French electorate voted for the leader of the extreme Right-wing party whose campaign message was largely nationalistic. Were more French people really opposed to the presence of recent immigrants or those of foreign descent at the start of the new millennium? This is far from certain, according to Guillaume Roux.
The author looks at xenophobia in France over the long term and how it has changed, both in general and when the population is broken down by age and by attitudes to different minorities, as well as in comparison with other countries (the United States and others in Europe). He argues that the long-term trend is in fact towards a decline in xenophobia in France. And although certain events, such as the riots in November 2005, may cause sudden blips in the observed trends, factors such as the arrival on the scene of new generations (younger people turn out to be more tolerant than their elders), the general improvement in levels of education or overall changes in people's values suggest that this long-term trend is likely to last.

Revue

Institutions

Le vote d’extrême droite en France : adhésion ou protestation ?

The first round of the French presidential elections caused real anxiety: the Far Right, with over 5 million votes (a clear increase compared with the 1995 election), came second, knocking out the Socialist candidate from the second round. How can this result be explained?
Pascal Perrineau starts by recalling that support for the Far Right, in spite of the view of some commentators, has not fallen away in recent years. On the contrary, he stresses that we have seen a considerable increase in abstentions and in votes for both Far Left and Far Right, while the major government coalitions have lost many votes.
For Perrineau, an expert in European extreme Right-wing movements, "the first round of the presidential election was indeed an election composed of 'anti' votes", just as the second round saw a massive rejection of Jean-Marie Le Pen: "the whiff of sulphur that provided his strength in the first (proportional) round, in which all the negative feelings were expressed, became a handicap in the second round".
Pascal Perrineau then analyses the geographical distribution of the support for the Far Right (in eastern and southern France) and the sociological patterns, showing that those who vote for Le Pen are mainly young men with little education, small shopkeepers, unskilled manual workers and the unemployed.
Lastly, Perrineau attempts an investigation of the causes underlying this vote for the Far Right. He notes that, in addition to the specific motives such as the rising levels of petty crime, the return of pessimism about economic and social prospects, and the worries caused by the growth of an "open society", there are also much deeper motives. He argues that a new division is developing in France, beyond the traditional Left-Right split, between people who cling to "closed" attitudes and those whose attitudes are more "open": the former being opposed to, the latter in favour of, European unification, globalisation, the post-industrial society, multiculturalism, etc.
Having thus outlined and explained why the two rounds of this presidential election have been massive rejections, Perrineau stresses that it is urgent "for France to rediscover - beyond these 'negative' political movements that have regularly caused such upheavals for almost ten years now - a kind of political awareness that is more a matter of commitment and reform than a rejection of the status quo".

Bibliography

Institutions

« L’Algérie en contrechamp »

L'islamisme n'est pas le produit obligé de l'islam : il résulte de l'association entre la religion et une volonté politique. Pour Burhan Ghalioun, qui signe l'article introductif, il n'est pas vrai que le temporel et le spirituel soient indissociables dans l'islam. Toutes les sociétés musulmanes ont su prendre le tournant de la modernité et de la sécularisation, c'est-à-dire distinguer ce qui relève de la religion et ce qui relève de l'organisation de ...

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Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Institutions

La Démocratie à l’épreuve : nationalisme, populisme, ethnicité

La montée générale des extrémismes de toutes sortes, depuis les intégrismes religieux jusqu'aux résurgences de fascisme et de communisme dur et xénophobe, incite à relire l'ouvrage de Michel Wieviorka qui propose de « ne pas dissocier trop vite, dans l'analyse, la question sociale et la question des identités ». En particulier parce que « la dissolution de toute capacité d'action proprement sociale se solde par un renforcement des appels identitaires ». Le livre étudie dans ses trois parties le nationalisme ...

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