États-Unis

Bibliography

Géopolitique

Net-Centric Warfare / Net-Centric Operations : Impacts stratégiques - Impacts industriels

Le concept de mise en réseau informatique des forces, à l'origine « Network-Centric Warfare (NCW) », terme aujourd'hui de plus en plus remplacé par celui de « Network-Centric Operations (NCO) », est apparu au milieu des années 1990. Devenu depuis le principal cadre de transformation de l'armée américaine préconisée dans des documents tels que Joint Vision 2020, il vise principalement la mise en réseau de l'ensemble des protagonistes d'une action armée (militaires mais aussi parfois civils) en vue de ...

(366 more words)

Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Géopolitique

Productivité et croissance

Le niveau de vie de la France, et plus largement de l'Union européenne, est inférieur d'environ 25 % à celui des États-Unis. Que s'est-il donc passé depuis les « Trente glorieuses », années fastes de rattrapage de l'Europe par rapport aux États-Unis ? Comment expliquer la rupture des évolutions relatives de productivité et de niveau de vie entre l'Union européenne et les États-Unis des années 1990 ? Par les nouvelles technologies ? Quelles réformes mettre en œuvre en France pour que ...

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Revue

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

La marchandisation du vivant

The major advances in research into the basis of life, especially over the last two decades, threatens to lead - as discoveries and/or inventions are made and, as a result, patents are taken out - to a process of private acquisition and hence commercialisation of the world's gene stock.
Pierre-Benoit Joly and Bertrand Hervieu first outline the dangers inherent in these developments and then go on to discuss the various "innovation regimes", in particular how we have shifted from agricultural research shaped mainly by public bodies and the farming community to genome -soon to be post-genome- research dominated by multinational firms, that incite moves to strengthen intellectual property considerations.
Rather than making the argument one of public versus private control, the authors favour seeking a third way. They begin by analysing the reasons behind patent laws (whose purpose is to encourage research while fostering the spread of innovations), while at the same time they emphasize the problems in practice, especially where life-forms are involved, and the benefits and drawbacks that may arise when patent laws are applied too rigidly.
They then show that other ways of protecting inventions exist which make it possible to share financial resources and genetic material (as has happened in the case of cattle). With these precedents in mind - for which they also sketch the advantages and disadvantages- they make a plea for a European model based on sharing resources, with references to successful initiatives of this kind in both the United States and Europe.

Forum

Géopolitique

L’avenir des armes nucléaires

Christophe Soulé discusses the development of the American stance on this issue, based upon the ideas of Richard Garwin, for many years a strong supporter of arms control. In particular, he demonstrates how far the Republicans (and, above all, the administration of George W. Bush) tend to renege on agreements signed in earlier decades to reduce the numbers of nuclear weapons. Not only is there no longer any question of negotiating a new reduction of weapons at global level, the nuclear armaments already subject to an agreement will not after all be destroyed but simply "put on standby".
Moreover, this new strategic stance is declared unilaterally and without consultation -as is more and more often the case. However, this could well boomerang: the US, by depriving itself of one of the few means of negotiating a reduction in nuclear proliferation, Soulé argues, will be putting its own security at risk.

Forum

La peine capitale aux États-Unis

In this discussion, Jean-Jacques Salomon outlines the history of the death penalty in the United States. Drawing on several recent publications on the subject, he points out that although the current American support for capital punishment does indeed have cultural roots, it runs counter to the trend in the other major democracies (especially in Europe) and also to the abolitionist movement which was very strong in the USA in the 1970s. As a result, America is among the countries with the highest number of executions per year, alongside the toughest dictatorships (China and Iran). This situation is to be deplored, yet it is unlikely to change for the better, given the renewed strength of American public opinion since September 11th 2001.

Revue

Géopolitique

Réflexions sur la guerre postmoderne. À propos de l’Irak

This article, completed in May 2003, already foresaw quite accurately the mess in which the United States is becoming ever more deeply entangled in both Iraq and Afghanistan. It was inevitable that the frantic efforts to achieve total control (under cover of bringing democracy and fighting terrorism), with ever fewer scruples, would come up against some problems along the way.
The difficulties that the Americans are encountering arise from the ever-widening gap between the noble aims which they proclaimed (at least for the benefit of the media) and the means employed. Even the most innocent observer is led to question the true motives of a power that, in the name of "restoring democracy", offers staggering sums of money to anyone who will help to rid it of its enemies -if necessary by killing them, as we have seen recently in the case of some of the former rulers of Iraq.
"Has democracy flowered in the lands churned up by post-modern wars?", wonders Michel Pinton. "Not so far. Seven years of international efforts in Bosnia, four years in Kosovo, two in Afghanistan, have still yielded nothing." Indeed it is the setbacks in wars waged by the US, the sole superpower, that generate its own future enemies. Furthermore, "it would be risky to suppose that all post-modern wars will be as easy for America to win as the ones just over".

Forum

Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

Et si George Bush avait raison ? La position américaine sur le protocole de Kyoto

In December 1997, the leaders of 168 countries agreed in Kyoto to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases which are suspected of disturbing the climate by 5.2% before 2012.
Four years later, the United States withdrew from the agreements. Why? Pierre Bonnaure tries to explain the American position and to demonstrate that ultimately the United States perhaps does more for the environment than the European countries...
Leaving aside George Bush, André Lebeau replies that we are, for the first time, confronted with a truly global challenge, a challenge that requires humanity to act globally. The fact that the United States is the leader of the world means that it has a duty to act in the best interests of the future of humankind. It is therefore altogether regrettable that the United States is more concerned to protect its own interests rather than to lead global action in the face of the threats looming over the Earth.

Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

The Future of Work : Changing Patterns of Workforce Management and their Impact on the Workplace

Les auteurs rendent comptent dans cet article des conclusions d'un programme de recherche financé par plusieurs grandes compagnies américaines. Selon eux, la plupart des entreprises ne savent pas manager les knowledge workers de manière efficace. Elles pourraient améliorer leur productivité et leur flexibilité en réduisant dans le même temps leurs coûts fixes de 30 % Le changement de nature du travail (de plus en plus intellectuel), la diversité croissante de la population active (plus féminine, plus âgée), les attentes de ...

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Économie, emploi - Géopolitique

Guerre en Irak : les conséquences économiques aux États-Unis

Geneviève Schméder, on the basis of several studies carried out in the United States, examines the potential costs and benefits of the war in Iraq for the American economy.
The estimates of the costs naturally vary depending on the length and difficulty of the war, its immediate aftermath, and what happens to oil prices...
The author stresses that military victory is much less important than the restoration of peace, and ponders the post-war phase, humanitarian aid and the reconstruction of Iraq. It is clear that, unlike the period of the Marshall Plan, the United States is no longer in a position to help the region as it might have in other times.
Lastly, Geneviève Schméder argues that the American economy, far from gaining from the conflict, could suffer badly as a result of it.

Forum

Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

Et si George Bush avait tout faux ? Le changement climatique, un défi planétaire

In December 1997, the leaders of 168 countries agreed in Kyoto to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases which are suspected of disturbing the climate by 5.2% before 2012.
Four years later, the United States withdrew from the agreements. Why? Pierre Bonnaure tries to explain the American position and to demonstrate that ultimately the United States perhaps does more for the environment than the European countries...
Leaving aside George Bush, André Lebeau replies that we are, for the first time, confronted with a truly global challenge, a challenge that requires humanity to act globally. The fact that the United States is the leader of the world means that it has a duty to act in the best interests of the future of humankind. It is therefore altogether regrettable that the United States is more concerned to protect its own interests rather than to lead global action in the face of the threats looming over the Earth.

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Société, modes de vie

La vie quotidienne : une comparaison France/États-Unis

John Robinson has therefore analysed the daily routine of Americans and the changes that have occurred in their lives in recent decades. He then uses this information to compare France and the United States.
The trends in how time is divided between work, the family and leisure pursuits has changed little overall since the 1960s, and turn out to be remarkably similar in the two countries. Nevertheless certain changes can be observed: more women in paid work, less time spent on household tasks and caring for the family, men taking on a greater share of household tasks and a slight fall in the amount of time spent on personal care (washing, dressing, etc.). The greater leisure time available tends to be spent watching television and keeping fit.
While French and American trends usually run in parallel, they diverge in certain areas, in particular the non-productive aspects of life (meals, socializing, group activities) that increase the social capital of daily life. Unlike the Americans, the French prefer to spend their leisure time with other people even though, paradoxically, they spend less time with their children when they get older.

Revue

Population

L’assimilation aux États-Unis

The United States, the great melting-pot, is the archetypal model of how to assimilate immigrant communities. Richard Alba looks here at how these immigrants become integrated and their impact on American society.
The assimilation of the current wave of immigration into the United States is dominated by multiculturalism and racial and ethnic stratification. The three traditional models of integration -"assimilation", "racialization" and "pluralism"- are changing rapidly. Today, integration is occurring in spatial terms as groups of immigrants move out of ethnic minority neighbourhoods into middle class residential areas where the majority population is white. In addition, integration is altering the mainstream (ethnic majority), which is taking on some of the immigrants' characteristics. In this way the distinctively ethnic characteristics are gradually disappearing. Lastly, among the latest generations of children of immigrants, many processes are at work to foster mobility (economic, social and cultural), and these are helping to blur the boundaries between ethnic groups.
In the future, the racial and social segmentation of American society could well become less marked, above all as a result of increasing numbers of mixed marriages and greater acceptance of mixed ancestry.
However, Alba concludes, the blurring of boundaries will depend on how well educated the immigrants are, their ethnic characteristics and geographical distribution. How well people are integrated will vary from group to group, and racial and social inequalities are likely to persist in American society.

Revue

Population

Mondialisation et migrations. L’exemple des États-Unis

What are the main factors underlying international migration? Are the flows determined by very different patterns of population growth in the North and the South, or by economic and social disparities? According to Douglas S. Massey, migration flows are directly related to globalization and to the increased flows of capital, goods and services.
As proof, he takes the case of the United States, where there have been two periods of very high immigration: first from 1800 to 1914, when immigration was directly correlated with the growth of foreign trade; and then since World War II and above all the fall of the Berlin Wall, with the rise of globalization, again clearly linked to the strong growth in foreign trade.
The difference between these two periods is that at the beginning of the 20th century, immigration was quite acceptable to the receiving country, whereas now the US tries to control it -albeit without much success. Another difference is that in the first period of globalization, the immigrants came from Europe, whereas now they come from America's main trading partners: Mexico, the Philippines, China...
In conclusion, Massey stresses that the growth of international migration cannot be halted and is directly linked to the phenomenon of global trade. He also argues that the immigrants in future will come not from the poorest and most populous countries but from countries with the highest levels of international trade.

Revue

Institutions - Population

Le lobby gris aux États-Unis

Like all the industrialized countries, the population of the United States is ageing significantly, with elderly people accounting for an increasing number and proportion of the total.
In contrast to continental Europe, where the state is meant to embody the common good and where in practice it has developed a major role as protector of the elderly and infirm, in the United States the common good is supposed to emerge from the free interplay of pressure groups which may hold more or less conflicting views and be more or less powerful. Consequently American pensioners defend their cause above all via lobby groups, the best known being the AARP.
In this article, Jean-Philippe Viriot-Durandal first discusses the special role of these lobby groups in the American democratic process, and then looks at how they have helped to shape the policies on old age in the United States. He describes the main pressure groups and shows how they operate with regard to both Congress and the executive branch.
However, the lobbies are not satisfied merely with defending a given cause. Still taking as his example the pressure groups for the elderly, the author shows how American policies are ultimately the result of compromises and short-term coalitions achieved after bitter negotiations.

Bibliography

Population - Société, modes de vie

Gen-X Meets Gen-Y. Youth Perceptions and Concerns about the Future. A Review of the Literature

Ce texte est une synthèse d'études consacrées aux aspirations, valeurs et craintes vis-à-vis de l'avenir des jeunes générations. Les générations X et Y désignent celles qui ont succédé à la génération du baby boom, soit les personnes nées entre 1960 et 1980 pour la génération X, et celles nées dans les années 1980 pour la génération Y. Les valeurs prêtées généralement à la génération X sont le matérialisme, le cynisme et le pessimisme. La génération Y compterait 70 ...

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Bibliography

Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security

Ce rapport a été commandé à un think-tank californien, le Global Business Network par l'Office of Net Assessment du Pentagone. Comme la plupart des documents produits par ou pour ce service (qui assure une prospective interne au département de la Défense), ce rapport n'avait pas vocation à être rendu public. Cependant, les journaux Fortune et The Observer s'en sont fait l'écho fin février 2004, et les auteurs, en accord avec leur commanditaires ont préféré le rendre ...

(706 more words)

Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Géopolitique

The Future of Transatlantic Relations. Restoring Trust and Building a New Partnership

Les relations transatlantiques sont en crise. La guerre contre le terrorisme qui a suivi le 11 septembre 2001 a aggravé et mis en évidence les divergences politiques, mais aussi sociales et culturelles, entre Européens et Américains. Pourtant, ceux-ci feraient mieux de cesser de se menacer mutuellement, de rechercher avant tout les points d'accord et travailler dans les domaines qui marchent. Le Congrès américain et le Parlement européen devraient se concerter davantage. Les exécutifs de chaque côté devraient se rencontrer ...

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