Entreprises

Revue

Entreprises, travail

The Rise and Decline of General Motors: The Slow Death of Triumphant America

In May 2006 Michel Drancourt sounded the alarm bell in this journal over the very uncertain future of the American automotive giant General Motors. He returns this month to the question of the state of that company. General Motors is not dead, but it remains in a parlous situation and this marks a turning point in contemporary socio-economic history. In fact, with the decline of this emblematic leader in the automobile industry, it is, Drancourt informs us, the "American way of life" and the consumer society as conceived by Westerners over more than half a century that are seeing their foundations whittled away.
Michel Drancourt reminds us what made this near-century-old company successful; he then shows how a lack of foresight and an excess of confidence undermined that success, sending the company into a spiral of decline. In his view, that decline marks the end of an age - the era of triumphant America. The USA will have to give way to the emerging economies and, most importantly, accept the fact that the age of easy affluence is coming to an end, to be replaced by the era of scarce natural resources.

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Knowing Your Turf

Jean-François Zobrist has been chief executive of an SME since 1983. He runs a foundry employing 550 people, which shows that harnessing talent and will is not just a matter for the high-tech sectors and hyper-qualified executives - and that good intentions can go hand in hand with healthy accounts. FAVI, a family business based in Hallencourt in Picardy, has proved itself the world leader in copper alloy injection. It is an economic success supported by research, product innovation and, above all, the humanistic management of its employees. The keys to that success are trust, strong values rather than regulations, clearly defined aims, a margin of freedom for the employees, and objective reasons for each person to contribute personally to the collective performance.

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Grow and Stay Innovative

Jean-Paul Colin, a consultant and former executive of the IT giant Intel, shows here how hard it is for a rapidly growing company to retain the qualities that made it strong: namely, its capacity for innovation, and the fluidity in its decision-making circuits that enables new ideas to be implemented rapidly. Is a company doomed to decline once its size increases appreciably? Not necessarily, says Jean-Paul Colin. You have to think, above all, in terms of decision-making circuits, and not strictly in financial terms. This means you have sometimes to be open to dividing up the company structure, so as to achieve a better potential for innovation.

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Dare to Innovate

Two days of debate on the theme of innovation were organized on 26 and 27 September 2007 at Margaux, near Bordeaux, by Oséo, a public body created to finance and support innovation in French small and medium enterprises (SMEs), and by the Regional Council of Aquitaine. These "Entretiens de Margaux", aspiring to become a "Davos of Innovation", will be held again in 2009. The aim is to lend dynamism to - and transform - innovation in France, by stimulating activity on the part of the lead actors in the field, the SMEs.
André-Yves Portnoff took part in this meeting between 200 personalities from all parts of the world and in this issue he presents a special dossier, placing the lessons of the "Entretiens de Margaux" in the context of events that have happened since and of a variety of recent works. Alongside the articles by Jean-Paul Colin, Edgar Morin, Hervé Sérieyx and Jean-François Zobrist, André-Yves Portnoff identifies the main elements of interest for France and also for Europe.
The situation is grave, he says, diagnosing a desperate shortage of technical and organizational innovation. The economic and social consequences of this could turn out to be increasingly serious, for lack of sufficient investment from the major industrial groups and for want of long-term vision in industrial matters. As a matter of the utmost urgency, a context must be created in which SMEs can express and exploit their innovativeness, and can grow to take over from the ageing large industrial groups. This involves the elimination of the many existing obstacles, more humanistic methods of management, more partnerships and, more generally, a genuine cultural revolution that breaks with excessive state centralism and a reductive Cartesianism, a revolution that has been slow to emerge in France and in the European Union.

Note de veille

Entreprises, travail - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

Énergie : l’informatique sous contrainte

Nous avons attiré ici l'attention sur l'importance de la consommation des circuits intégrés tant pour les utilisateurs en termes de budget, qu'au niveau de la planète du point de vue de l'environnement. Une prise de conscience s'opère, du côté de certains grands consommateurs et d'acteurs majeurs de l'offre. Clairement, l'économie d'énergie est en train de devenir un enjeu central pour les entreprises ayant des parcs importants de machines et bientôt pour ...

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Note de veille

Entreprises, travail

Entreprises, tendances globales et stratégie

Les dirigeants estiment que les tendances globales, qu'elles soient sociales, environnementales ou économiques, sont de plus en plus importantes pour la stratégie des entreprises, cependant peu en tirent vraiment les conséquences, selon une enquête réalisée par The McKinsey Quarterly.

Revue

Entreprises, travail

Indian Large Enterprises in the Years to 2025

Still in the wake of the "India 2025" conference, organized on 12 October 2007 in Paris by the Institut des hautes études de défense nationale and the Asia 21 group (Futuribles International), Philippe Humbert's article, co-written with Jean-Joseph Boillot, draws on his contribution to that conference with regard to the possible future of Indian large enterprises. After presenting the three ages of Indian capitalism, from Independence to the present day, the authors examine the possible development of historic or emerging large enterprises in that country. They offer, inter alia, a typology of the main Indian industrial combines, structured around three "families" (public companies, the manufacturing and consumer durables industries, and enterprises in the knowledge and service sector). They go on to depict an Indian business landscape that will have undergone profound change by 2025, by comparison with the early years of the 21st century, within which a number of large combines will most certainly have acquired front-rank international stature.

Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail

Creating People Advantage. Comment relever les défis RH dans le monde d’ici à 2015 ? Synthèse

L'idée clef de cette étude du Boston Consulting Group est que les entreprises peuvent gagner un avantage concurrentiel par des stratégies de ressources humaines (RH) efficaces. En effet, les RH seront confrontées à plusieurs défis dans les années à venir : - les talents et cadres dirigeants seront des ressources de plus en plus rares ; - la main-d'œuvre vieillit, beaucoup d'entreprises auront bientôt du mal à pourvoir leurs postes clefs et à remplacer les connaissances et savoir-faire précieux détenus par ...

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Bibliography

Entreprises, travail - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

State of the World 2008 : Innovations for a Sustainable Economy

Les problèmes liés au réchauffement climatique et à la préservation de l'environnement suscitent une dynamique économique positive et innovatrice, selon l'édition 2008 du State of the World publié comme tous les ans par le Worldwatch Institute. « Il y a des signes d'une économie durable qui sont en train de poindre, conséquences d'une extraordinaire innovation qui se manifeste dans les ONG (organisations non gouvernementales), les groupes de consommateurs et les gouvernements, et qui se répand jusqu'au ...

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Bibliography

Entreprises, travail

The Enterprise of the Future

À quoi ressemblera l'entreprise du futur ? Comment s'adaptera-t-elle aux modifications de son environnement et des attentes de ses clients / usagers ? Sans chercher directement à répondre à ces questions, la société IBM a interrogé 1 130 dirigeants d'entreprises (toutes tailles confondues) réparties dans 40 pays et 32 secteurs différents, pour comprendre comment ils envisagent l'avenir de leur structure. Sans surprise, les dirigeants anticipent majoritairement (à 80 %) d'importants changements à venir dans le fonctionnement des entreprises et ...

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Chapitre de rapport annuel vigie

Société, modes de vie

Chapitre 8 du rapport Vigie 2007 : L’essor de l’économie de la fonctionnalité

L’économie de la fonctionnalité consiste à vendre l’usage d’un produit plutôt que le produit lui-même (location avec entretien, réparation et changement ou remise à niveau). Ceci permet à l’entreprise de bénéficier d’un revenu régulier, moins aléatoire pour la comptabilité que le nombre d’objets vendus et, côté environnement, d’améliorer la durabilité des biens et leur recyclabilité. Des entreprises comme Michelin ou Xerox ont été les pionnières en la matière, les systèmes d’auto-partage (car-sharing ...

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Revue

Entreprises, travail - Population

Women's Input in the Future. Women as Sources of Change and Innovation

The arrival of women in visible and high-level decision-making positions provokes contradictory reactions, veering between hope and distrust. Annie Batlle does not address the question of women's access to power in terms of equality or fairness but rather looks at what difference the growing presence of women in economic, political and social affairs will make. Do they behave in the same ways as their male colleagues? Are they as efficient? Are they innovative?
The author takes a variety of previous studies and the (abundant) recent literature on the place of women as the basis for her analysis of the patterns of behaviour among women that she has worked with or interviewed, the accounts given by men and women, the research and available data. In her view, most women turn out to be a force for change: not because they are biologically different but because they have, willingly or unwillingly, lived in different worlds, coped with different responsibilities, had different experiences, undergone different conditioning and developed a different culture to men.
It is true that women are not a homogeneous group: they differ depending on their background, milieu, character and generation. But while they are obviously as intelligent and ambitious as men, and able to acquire the same skills, women nowadays have priorities and expectations that are often quite unlike those of their male counterparts. According to Annie Batlle, it is not the mere presence of more women in power but the combination of different approaches that might liven up the male model, which has admittedly had its plus sides but which has also had its day.

Revue

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

The Era of Very Wide Choice. Review of Chris Anderson's The Long Tail

Are modern societies condemned to a mass market culture based on bestsellers and publishing phenomena like the Harry Potter books? No, that's all in the past, argues Chris Anderson in his book The Long Tail, which Geoffrey Delcroix examines here.
From now on, the markets for cultural goods are likely to operate according to the principle of the "long tail". Alongside a few bestsellers will be "niche products" with much smaller sales. Firms may henceforth find it just as worthwhile to offer a vast range of CDs, books and films as to put all their efforts into selling a handful of high-profile products.
Yet this principle will require firms to hold stocks of goods that they know will sell more slowly, which is why the Internet is a great boon in coping with the long tail. Thanks to e-commerce, it is now possible to offer an enormous range of goods on the Internet for an indefinite period at minimal cost. This concept, it must be acknowledged, ultimately also benefits consumers and promotes cultural diversity.

Note de veille

Entreprises, travail

Industrie électronique : la difficile mais nécessaire mue du modèle japonais en Asie orientale

À la fin des années 1990, les entreprises électroniques japonaises apparaissent dépassées par leurs rivales américaines plus compétitives et capables d'innover. L'épuisement d'un modèle, celui du " vol d'oies sauvages " - qui avait organisé l'essor des réseaux de production japonais en Asie orientale - signifie-t-il pour autant que l'industrie électronique en Asie orientale soit en voie d'"américanisation" ? On assiste plutôt à une refonte progressive de l'organisation des réseaux de production japonais, avec des ajustements parfois ...

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Note de veille

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

De la pensée complexe aux processeurs multi-cœurs

Il est important pour deux raisons différentes de décrypter ce qui se cache derrière les annonces de processeurs à cœurs de plus en plus nombreux, un marché de plusieurs milliards d’euros. D’une part la bonne marche de toutes les entreprises dépend de la qualité de leur informatique et bien des spécialistes se laissent abuser, ne distinguant pas caractéristiques techniques et valeur d’usage effective ; d’autre part, il est intéressant d’observer comment se construit l’opinion dans ...

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Note de veille

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

(In) intelligence économique militaro-jacobine

Les difficultés de Safran, qui dégradent la position française en téléphonie, démontrent qu’être obnubilé par la défense au détriment des principaux marchés, qui sont civils, aboutit à des catastrophes stratégiques.??

Bibliography

Entreprises, travail

Opportunities and Challenges for Small and Medium Sized Business (SMEs). The Next Five Years

Ce rapport présente les résultats d'une enquête réalisée par GFF, une PME (petite et moyenne entreprise) de prospective britannique, pour le compte de Shirlaws, un cabinet britannique de business coaching. L'objectif consiste à examiner les opportunités et les défis que les PME vont rencontrer au cours des cinq prochaines années. Pour cette enquête, des dirigeants, fondateurs ou cadres supérieurs de 357 PME dans 39 pays (35 % en Europe, 21 % en Amérique du Nord, 11 % en Asie) ont été ...

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