Éthique

Bibliography

Géopolitique - Société, modes de vie

Croyances religieuses, morales et éthiques dans le processus de construction européenne

Ce rapport rassemble les travaux issus de la première réunion d'une série de six séminaires de recherche consacrés à des domaines différents de la vie des Européens. Il remarque que les croyances des Européens et leur évolution lors des progrès de leur intégration, sont rarement prises en compte dans les analyses de la construction européenne, alors que le sont les politiques communes, les institutions, les valeurs partagées. Il se demande si les croyances religieuses, morales et éthiques peuvent aider ...

(25 more words)

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Relever le défi des biotechnologies

Après avoir dressé un bilan des biotechnologies en France, le rapport présente un plan d'action pour les valoriser autour des axes suivants : accroître l'effort de la nation en faveur de la recherche publique , valoriser l'innovation et le transfert de technologies, assurer le financement de l'innovation, soutenir les projets innovants et la création d'entreprises, sauvegarder les valeurs citoyennes et construire les solidarités Nord-Sud. Il est complété par cinq analyses (« les enjeux éthiques des recherches sur les ...

(15 more words)

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Où va l’humanité ? À propos de l’ouvrage de Jean-Claude Guillebaud, Le Principe d’humanité

Jean-Claude Guillebaud, who among other things is a writer, journalist and editor for the publishing house Seuil, made a presentation about his latest book Le Principe d'humanité (Paris: Seuil, 2001) to a Round Table organized by Futuribles International on 14 November 2001. Benjamin Delannoy, a journalist for Futuribles, discusses here the main ideas as Guillebaud presented them at the meeting or in his book.
As he stresses, the author undertakes to stimulate opinion about the future of humanity and to remind us of several essential principles necessary for the "preservation" of human nature and the conditions of community life associated with it. Among them, the "principle of humanity" states that all men and women belong fully and undeniably to a common humanity.
This presentation highlights the threats now facing humankind, as a result in particular of the very rapid advances in science and technology without any corresponding ethical control over them, as well as the blindspots and failure to address the major human and social issues such as the relationship between human beings and machines, between Man and Nature, etc. This is therefore an opportunity to explore more thoroughly what underpins "living together" and to take a position as to a critical but constructive view of humanity, necessarily based on freedom.

Revue

Éducation - Société, modes de vie

Éthique, valeurs et citoyenneté à l’école

Walo Hutmacher stresses the need for a methodology to underpin a rigorous study of the future of education, especially with regard to the issue of values and citizenship, which is closely linked to potential developments in science and technology, as well as in political, economic and social organization at global level.
In the absence of such a methodology, Hutmacher sets out to identify some key trends in current developments and to analyse their possible impact on education systems. He discusses in particular the new ethical issues raised by scientific progress, the consequences of globalization and the decline of the nation-state, as well as the significance of the new youth cultures.
Finally, he looks critically at what is currently happening in schools, above all the gulf between preaching and practice. Yet for all its faults, he argues that the model of state education should be the policy model for 2020, given the important social functions that it provides, especially if it is able to satisfy certain key conditions for bringing about essential reforms.

Revue

Éducation - Société, modes de vie

Pour l’introduction de l’éthique à l’école

The teaching of morals and citizenship, which was central to French education policy from the time of Jules Ferry, has now been virtually abandoned - even though, as Christian Nique argues, schools have a major role to play in ensuring social cohesion and filling the moral vacuum created by the rise of individualism.
Nique argues that schools should not relinquish this responsibility. He ponders what the differences might be between ethics -a concept that is more acceptable today- and morals -which is based on the idea of a code of human behaviour imposed from above; he ultimately concludes that, whatever the semantic differences, society cannot live without laws, except at the risk of falling apart or becoming the victim of a "moral order" imposed by a minority...
Concerned above all to preserve the social fabric but also aware of the important ethical issues likely to face tomorrow' adults, Nique argues forcefully that schools (perhaps the last institution capable of taking on this role) should once again give high priority to the teaching of ethics, morals and citizenship, which in future will be more essential than ever.

CR table ronde

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Le principe d’humanité

Avant d'entrer dans le vif du sujet, Jean-Claude Guillebaud, venu présenter les leçons principales due son dernier essai, Le Principe d'humanité, a voulu écarter dès l'abord deux malentendus persistants qui risquent de polluer la compréhension de son propos.

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

La quête du Graal et du génome humain

Jean-Jacques Salomon begins here by stating that the sequencing of the human genome, far from being an endeavour for human welfare, is the subject of a bitter competition, in particular, between public and private sector interests, and that its mapping reflects the geography of power...
Thus, the primary question according to him is whether the human genome is part of the common legacy of humanity (and constitutes a public good) or whether it can be, as is already the case today, privately appropriated and therefore sooner or later, become tradable.
The author subsequently stresses that the human genome cannot be understood as being identical and common to all humans, i.e. the genome of universal man, the average genome. On the contrary, quoting Richard Horton, he shows that the "practical interest of the human genome lies not so much in its actual sequence itself as in the genetic variations between individuals".
Finally, opposing all forms of genetic determinism, Jean-Jacques Salomon reminds us that human beings are not made up of genes that totally predetermine them, but that they also are the product of a social and cultural environment and that any theory explaining human behaviour through strictly physical and chemical factors is an aberration.

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Du bluff génétique à la police moléculaire

Never, it seems, has the progress of science and technique been so ambivalent, giving rise (in particular in the realm of life sciences) to such fears and such hopes.
Discussing here the progress in genetics, Jacques Testart shows first the role played by myths and reality in the progress achieved so far, underlining in particular how the progress in knowledge reveals the depth of our ignorance, or rather, the uncertainty that surrounds many questions. "The attitude of scientific and political authorities reveals a concern to believe and make believe in the control of genetics, a concern which tends towards falsification and irresponsibility" he writes, in order to expose human vanity and the tendency to boast about a knowledge that one does not really have.
Despite that remaining doubt, the author in a second part shows "how we can use genetics". He stresses what advances can be expected, especially in so called predictive medicine, but simultaneously warns about the inherent dangers to genetic selection, the competition towards "molecular enhancement" or worse even, towards "genetic purification" and dangerous "molecular tagging".
It is high time says the author, to "demystify the fabulous promises of genetics and to democratise the field of techno-science". Here lies, no doubt, the greatest challenge for the years to come, in which all of us have a stake and which we can't leave to the secret deliberations of the few genetic initiates alone.

Revue

Société, modes de vie

L’éthique : sources et praxis

In an interview with Futuribles, Marcel Gauchet shows us how open and surprising historical developments can be.
First of all, he says, our world is disenchanted, increasingly leaving matters to human beings to exercise power over themselves, and individual conscience to act as absolute arbiter in ethical and moral decision-making. Democracy and the secularization of religions is making Western culture both more self-confident about its values and more uncertain of how to function, which raises considerable problems. While our society does still have a minimum in the way of shared references, there is constant debate about how to apply them.
Next, he says, the modern times in which we live are marked by a weakening of the social authority of the churches which, conversely, are gaining moral authority. Society no longer expects from them the power to forbid and to coerce individual consciences, but asks instead that they shed light on the questions and dilemmas people are facing. Will they be able to fulfil these expectations better than the secular approach has been able to do?
Finally, he adds, one of the main issues facing the contemporary world is upbringing, what will human beings become? If there is no longer any tradition or superior authority, how should ethical and moral principles be acquired? The family no longer appears to be the transmitter of tradition. Will the school provide training? Or will religion take over this important role?
We are, concludes Marcel Gauchet, facing a situation without precedent in human history.

Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Société, modes de vie

Rapport moral sur l’argent dans le monde en 2001

Pour son huitième rapport moral sur l'argent dans le monde, l'Association d'économie financière a choisi de revenir sur quatre grands thèmes qui ont marqué le monde de la finance durant l'année 2000-2001. Sur fond de crise majeure des relations internationales et de remise en cause radicale du système financier mondial provoquée par les attentats du 11 septembre 2001, les auteurs se sont tout d'abord penchés sur les enjeux de l'économie mondialisée. Dans cette première ...

(285 more words)

Bibliography

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

« L’éthique dans la recherche et l’évaluation de la RDT (recherche et développement technologique) »

L'IPTS (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies) a consacré l'intégralité de son dernier numéro de l'année 2000 à la place du débat éthique dans le monde de la recherche. Après une introduction et deux premiers articles précisant la définition ici retenue de l'éthique et les questions de cette nature posées par l'évaluation de la recherche et de la science, « antidote[s] à l'impunité », Susan Cozzens présente le concept de gestion par les résultats. Depuis 10 ...

(128 more words)

Revue

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail - Société, modes de vie

Au-delà du capitalisme. À propos du livre de Charles Handy « The Hungry Spirit »

Charles Handy does not hesitate "to base his thinking about capitalism on a religiously founded ethical and philosophical conception of man and society", writes Michel Albert, who thereby reveals what he may have in common with the author of The Hungry Spirit since Albert, in his "Capitalisme contre capitalisme", did not hide his own preference for "Rhineland capitalism" and "the social market economy".
The two men share the conviction that nothing can replace the market and that self-interest is an essential driving force. Yet they are both convinced that a firm's wealth lies in its human resources as much, if not more than, in its shareholders, and that its purpose is not merely to maximize profits.
The successful companies in future, argues Charles Handy, will be those with a soul, which encourages Michel Albert in his plea for firms to have a sense of citizenship.

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Survivre à la science. Une certaine idée du futur

Jean-Jacques Salomon, philosophe des sciences, ancien titulaire de la chaire Technologie et société au Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, nous livre ici un ouvrage plaidoyer dans lequel il dresse une sorte de bilan de la relation science / société. Rapprochant cette fin de siècle de celle du XVIe siècle, il constate que nous sommes peut-être à un nouveau tournant dans l'histoire de l'humanité : l'homme lui paraît sur le point de prendre conscience de ce que les progrès ...

(199 more words)

Revue

Institutions - Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

La science et ses malaises

Science and Uneasiness
Jean-Jacques Salomon shares with us some thoughts inspired by his reading of recent books on the issues of 1) science and its ambiguous relationship with the State, the public and, therefore, the media, and 2) the soul-searching of scientists themselves when they face the ambivalent implications and possible applications of their discoveries.
Salomons analysis was inspired by five books primarily, in which he found a common element of deep uneasiness within the scientific community over its relationship with society at large. The malaise finds expression as laments for the deficit of innovation compared to the efforts expended in scientific research, for the ambivalence of scientific progress and the (potential and real) risks associated with its imperfect mastery. These concerns are felt by scientists as applying to themselves, let alone to the media-driven State and its citizens.

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Sur les dérives de la raison technicienne. À propos de quelques livres récents

The Deviations of Technological Rationality. A Review of Some Recent Books
Jean-Jacques Salomon provides a critical review of three recent books : François Caron, Les deux révolutions industrielles du XXe siècle ("The Two Industrial Revolutions of the Twentieth Century"); Peter Kemp, L'irremplaçable. Une éthique de la technologie ("The Irreplaceable: An Ethic of Technology"); Bertrand Saint-Sernin, Entretiens nocturnes (sur la théorie des jeux, la poésie et le "nihilisme" chrétien) ("Thoughts in the Night: On Game Theory, Poetry and Christian "Nihilism").
With Caron's work as authority, Salomon emphasizes the evolutionary interactions between technical systems and the techno-economic environment, demonstrating the extent to which technique builds society and vice-versa. This is not always for the benefit of people and comes at the cost of disfunctionalities and deviations for which we should always be on guard.
With reference to Peter Kemp, Salomon points ou that the ethical reflection imposed by these circumstances goes beyond the principle of accountability, but is not always up to the challenge. Reflection must go much deeper than mere pious hopes, focus on the deviations and threats linked to excesses of technology (Bertrand Saint-Sernin) and on the limited usefulness of sciences in taking decisions.
"The malaise of a century abandoned to the decline of its utopia and the triumph of its technology urgently needs the rationalization of a renewed romantic spirit."

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Ce qui nous fait penser. La nature et la règle

De ce dialogue entre un spécialiste des neurosciences et un philosophe qui se réclame de la tradition phénoménologique jaillit toute une série de questionnements nouveaux sur les fondements de l'éthique dans les sociétés postmodernes. Pour Jean-Pierre Changeux, les progrès de l'expérimentation, en particulier les avancées ouvertes par l'imagerie cérébrale et l'électrophysiologie, permettent aujourd'hui de construire une théorie biologique des fonctions psychiques de l'homme. Si Paul Ricœur admet volontiers que la neuropsychologie puisse apporter des ...

(176 more words)

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Copies conformes, le clonage en question

Co-écrit par un généticien de l'INSERM et un journaliste spécialisé dans les questions de génétique, cet ouvrage entend faire le point sur le clonage et éclaircir les nombreux débats, scientifiques, politiques, éthiques et autres que ce procédé scientifique a pu générer. Très pédagogique, il explique clairement l'historique et la technique même du clonage afin de présenter aux lecteurs tous les tenants et aboutissants de la question. Sur le plan strictement scientifique, les auteurs précisent que c'est une ...

(203 more words)

Bibliography

Société, modes de vie

Un monde sans dieux. Plaidoyer pour une société ouverte

Le livre que publie aujourd'hui André Grjebine se situe dans une perspective assez Durkheimienne (ou Comtienne, en tout cas d'inspiration positiviste). En deux mots, quelle est cette problématique : E. Durkheim, comme avant lui A. Comte, constate, à la fin du XIXe siècle, l'effondrement de la société traditionnelle fondée sur la prééminence du groupe sur l'individu et la vigueur de l'intégration religieuse. L'ordre nouveau naissant s'appuie sur l'individualisme et l'essor des sciences ...

(391 more words)

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie

Le Siècle biotech. Le commerce des gènes dans le meilleur des mondes

Changeant radicalement de sujet par rapport à son précédent ouvrage (La fin du travail), Jeremy Rifkin aborde ici la question des biotechnologies. Il dresse une synthèse critique de cette révolution biotech et des innombrables conséquences qu'elle porte en germe. Outre une description détaillée des découvertes et innovations en cours (dans les domaines de la génétique, de l'écologie, de la médecine, etc.), il dépeint ce que pourrait être le siècle biotech en termes de mode de vie, de gestion ...

(80 more words)