Compétitivité

Revue

Économie, emploi - Éducation - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Towards World-Class Universities: Challenges and Opportunities for European Universities in the 21st Century

Fifty years after the student revolt of May 1968, Futuribles is devoting a dossier in this issue to the prospects for higher education in France. Alongside the articles by Jean-François Cervel, Pierre Papon and François Taddei describing the challenges faced by the French system today and the possible ways of meeting them, Gérard Escher and Patrick Aebischer highlight the key strengths the universities should now draw on to assert a presence at the international level.

Basing themselves, among other things, on the successful experience of the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), they highlight the changes that now have to be implemented within higher education institutions in the era of globalization and large-scale digitalization: on-line courses and distance learning for everyone and at all stages of life… Gérard Escher and Patrick Aebischer also list all the essential ingredients for a world-class university: developing a capacity to attract the most promising students, having an Internet presence, bringing in the best teaching staff, promoting innovation, developing a campus spirit, raising substantial finance, having a strategic vision etc. The European countries, France first and foremost, undoubtedly have the means to mobilize these ingredients and to position themselves on the world stage, but they are latecomers on the scene and, in a time when everything is moving faster and faster, there is a clear need to up the tempo on this process.

Revue

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail

Industry 4.0, An Industrial and Societal Revolution

In March 2017 (no. 417), Futuribles launched a series on the prospects for productivity and economic growth, in connection with the debate on risks of “secular stagnation”. In the first issue of 2018 (no. 422), the series was completed by an article by Gilbert Cette and Ombeline Jullien de Pommerol on the spread of information and communication technologies in the main developed countries in recent decades, and their impact on the economy. In this issue, we concern ourselves with the concrete consequences of the technological revolution currently under way in the industrial sector by way of the German “Industry 4.0” programme/concept.

Launched in 2011, Industry 4.0 initially aimed to bring together all the relevant actors around preserving German industry’s leadership in capital equipment. Dorothée Kohler and Jean-Daniel Weisz, who have studied this programme extensively and worked on the ground alongside the actors mobilized around this aim, describe the context in which it emerged, its goals, and the means deployed in pursuance of the strategy. They highlight the concrete impacts of this 4.0 revolution in the industrial sector (particularly on production methods and modes of work organization) and on business models (development of the value-chain, redistribution of economic power, breaking with the traditional management model etc.).

In a context characterized by great uncertainty and growing complexity, it is a time for adaptability and flexibility. This implies networked working (among the actors, but also between company structures), an ability to self-organize, and close cooperation between the different actors in the value-chain, between people and machines etc. The transition to Industry 4.0 will doubtless come about tentatively, by trial and error, but as this article shows, it involves quite a radical rethinking of existing models and, most importantly, an openness to collective action and collaboration, by means of which the technological revolution can become an opportunity in employment terms and not necessarily a threat.

Bibliography

Économie, emploi - Territoires, réseaux

Dynamiques territoriales. Éloge de la diversité

Dynamiques territoriales. Éloge de la diversité

Ce livre écrit par Olivier Bouba-Olga, professeur des universités en aménagement de l’espace et urbanisme à l’université de Poitiers (avec la collaboration de Pascal Chauchefoin, Héloïse Chiron, Marie Ferru, Benjamin Guimond et Emmanuel Nadaud) milite en faveur d’une lecture renouvelée des dynamiques territoriales en s’intéressant particulièrement aux activités économiques des territoires. L’auteur propose une analyse économique en décalage avec les modèles dominants, celui de la métropolisation ou de la spécialisation. Son analyse insiste ainsi davantage ...

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Note de veille

Entreprises, travail - Société, modes de vie

Diversité, créativité et compétitivité

La combinaison diversité et organisation inclusive favorise l’innovation et permet de capturer de nouveaux marchés. Deux consultants de PwC (PricewaterhouseCoopers) appuient cette affirmation sur une série d’études récentes [1]. La diversité recouvre aussi bien l’origine ethnique, le sexe ou les orientations sexuelles que des différences induites par l’expérience de chacun, les pays et les domaines où l’on a vécu, étudié et travaillé. Ils qualifient d’« inclusives » les organisations acceptant, respectant et valorisant les différences de ...

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Artisans du futur

Économie, emploi - Territoires, réseaux

Pôle Archer: An Area Revived

Given the serial failure in recent decades of policies enacted in France (by both Right and Left) to counter unemployment and revive economic activity, a number of actors and parts of the country have set about developing projects on their own initiative and on their own local scale. These are what are known as “bottom-up initiatives”, attempting to stimulate new thinking or activities from the grassroots. It is the role of the “Makers of the Future” column in Futuribles to present these kinds of initiatives and hence encourage citizens to be proactive in economic and social matters.

In this issue, Marthe de La Taille-Rivero has chosen to present the story and current activities of Pôle Archer, an economic development hub established in the Drôme department of South-Eastern France. Though initially built on what remained of an economically devastated shoe industry, the hub has pulled in actors from very different sectors to revive local economic activity. Pôle Archer was, then, one of the first French horizontal — rather than vertical — competitiveness hubs, being linked to a geographical area and not to a particular sector of excellence. The experiment has since spread, with the establishment of PTCEs — territorial clusters of economic cooperation. Given its encouraging prospects, Pôle Archer provides further evidence of the desirability of such bottom-up projects, which often owe their success to the motivation of their developers and, in many cases, turn out to have long-term viability. This is also what Marthe de La Taille-Rivero shows in the appendix to this article, where she goes back over several of the initiatives that have been described here since this particular column was launched. Most of these have held up and seen their activities expand, a sign that they were genuinely the work of “Makers of the Future”.

Note de veille

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques - Territoires, réseaux

Pôles de compétitivité : comment stimuler l’innovation dans les territoires ?

Créés en 2005, à la suite du rapport de Christian Blanc, Pour un écosystème de la croissance, remis au Premier ministre en 2004 [1], les pôles de compétitivité sont l’objet d’évaluations périodiques, la dernière en date étant celle de France Stratégie, en février 2017 [2]. En les créant, les pouvoirs publics voulaient dynamiser la compétitivité économique des territoires par l’innovation grâce à la coopération de trois acteurs : les entreprises, la recherche (publique et privée) et les établissements ...

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Note de veille

Économie, emploi - Ressources naturelles, énergie, environnement

Compétitivité des énergies renouvelables électriques : le point de bascule ?

Quelques annonces emblématiques en 2016 ont mis en lumière la baisse drastique des coûts de projets d’électricité renouvelable. Que l’on pense à la centrale solaire au sol en Gironde, en France, à 105 euros par MWh (mégawattheure), au parc éolien offshore au large du Danemark à 72 euros par MWh, à la centrale solaire de 800 MW à Dubaï à moins de 30 euros par MWh, ou encore aux projets en Amérique latine : les annonces médiatiques de record ...

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Analyse prospective

Entreprises, travail

France : climat social et compétitivité

Les directions des ressources humaines sont souvent en décalage par rapport au vécu des personnels. C’est un phénomène mondial qui fragilise beaucoup d’entreprises. Il est particulièrement sensible dans le secteur privé français, ce qui contribue à une dégradation forte du climat social. Or plusieurs enquêtes et études démontrent un lien direct entre compétitivité, climat social et orientation des fonctions ressources humaines.

Bibliography

Économie, emploi

European Competitiveness Report 2013

La crise économique et la montée en puissance des économies asiatiques ont été des révélateurs, en France comme dans d’autres pays européens, des faiblesses de l’industrie européenne. C’est ce qui a conduit la Commission européenne à dresser un bilan de l’industrie européenne dans la compétition mondiale dans les six chapitres de ce rapport. Celle-ci s’interroge aussi sur les voies et les moyens d’une possible « réindustrialisation » de l’Union européenne (UE). Le rapport fait une ...

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CR table ronde

Entreprises, travail

Pacte pour la compétitivité de l’industrie française

Louis Gallois, commissaire général à l’Investissement, ancien président de la SNCF, ancien président directeur général d’EADS, et fondateur de la « Fabrique de l’industrie », a remis au Premier ministre français, Jean-Marc Ayrault, le 5 novembre 2012, un rapport très attendu sur la compétitivité de l’industrie française. Son rapport, Pacte pour la compétitivité de l’industrie française, constitue un véritable plan pour relancer la politique industrielle, et formule 22 propositions visant à redynamiser le tissu industriel français et ...

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Revue

Territoires, réseaux

City Rankings

With the economy at a low ebb, competition between towns and cities to attract companies, talent and tourists or to win the allegiance of their residents might well become tougher. Competition between cities isn't a new phenomenon. It has existed as long as trade has existed, but in the current context of accelerated globalization it has acquired a new face and cities are using all their ingenuity to showcase their particular strengths.
Among the means at their disposal, all kinds of ranking and benchmarking - to use the fashionable term - are increasingly being called on. Whether based on objective criteria or more subjective survey material, they enable cities to compare themselves with others and adapt their strategies to suit their particular strengths and weaknesses.
Émile Hooge has studied most of the benchmarking indices on the big metropolises currently in existence. After reminding us of the basis of cities' strategies in the international competition between them, he presents these indices here (European Cities of the Future, European Competitiveness Index, Quality of Living Index, European Cities Monitor, City Brands Index etc.), indicating their chief characteristics, together with the positive grounds for using them and, also, their limitations. He also shows that new areas of competition are emerging, with the two main fields currently covered by cities in their public relations (material values and image values) being potentially joined by the two complementary fields of functional values and identity values.

Revue

Économie, emploi - Territoires, réseaux

Winners and Losers: Strengths and Weaknesses of the European Metropolitan Regions

Which are the most attractive European cities, where are they located and what are the causes or factors of their attractiveness? Christian Vandermotten, who has worked for many years on these questions at the IGEAT (Institut de gestion de l'environnement et d'aménagement du territoire), offers various elements of a response based on the international comparison studies carried out by that institution.
Apart from comparisons of GDP per inhabitant, he bases himself on two indices: the functional index and the internationalization index, which make it possible to appreciate the concrete assets possessed by a city or urban area (connectivity, the presence of company headquarters, knowledge economy, tourism, heritage etc.). This makes it possible to draw up a classification of the most internationalized and most functional cities, in which some large metropolitan districts (London, Paris, Rome, Madrid, Amsterdam, Brussels, Munich etc.) come out top, together with a number of Central or Eastern European capitals (Prague, Budapest, Warsaw etc.), though two of the capitals that "missed out" on the benefits of the opening-up to Eastern Europe (Berlin and Vienna) are not among their number and a certain number of other losers are also absent from the list, these being mainly cities and conurbations with longstanding industrial traditions (Manchester, Liverpool, Lille, the Ruhr etc.). The author does, however, stress that the newfound prosperity of the great European metropolises should not lead us to forget the social challenges that still have to be faced (integration of immigrant populations, governance, mobility etc.). And he concludes with remarks on the various elements that make for potential urban success in the economic, social, heritage, environmental and other fields.

Note de veille

Économie, emploi - Société, modes de vie

Prix et qualité de vie : classements des villes dans le monde

Les villes sont en compétition, à l’échelle internationale, pour attirer des investissements, des activités et, le cas échéant, des habitants. Des classements sont établis, hiérarchisant les métropoles, afin d’en mesurer l’attractivité. Ces études, menées maintenant régulièrement par de grands cabinets de conseil et de grandes banques (Mercer Consulting, UBS, Pricewaterhouse, ECA), portent généralement sur deux thèmes : les prix et la qualité de vie (1).

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Société, modes de vie - Territoires, réseaux

France's Competitiveness Hubs

In 2004, drawing its inspiration from foreign experiences and recommendations expressed in a number of reports, the French government decided on a new departure in industrial policy, setting up competitiveness hubs across the national territory. Four years after the launch of this policy, how do matters stand with it?
Thierry Weil and Stéphanie Fen Chong from the Observatoire des pôles de compétitivité (Competitiveness Hubs Observatory) recall here the genesis of the competitiveness hubs (the precursor systems, founding reports, specifications adopted, interplay between the actors, and emergence of the hubs). They then present the first lessons arising out of the development of these hubs, particularly focusing on the operation of projects, steering and finance, and the failings and inconsistencies observed. In this connection, they stress the difficulty of making an assessment at this stage: the hubs are still young, and premature evaluations may do a disservice to projects that are, in fact, essential. Lastly, they ask how this industrial dynamic can be maintained. In their view, this involves stimulating learning on the part of the various actors concerned and, once again, a long-term vision not focussed solely on the initial outcomes observed.

CR table ronde

Économie, emploi - Société, modes de vie

La mondialisation : opportunité ou menace ?

Le rapport Mondialisation : changeons de posture (Paris : La documentation Française, 2007) est à l’origine de cette table ronde organisée par Futuribles. Rédigé par le groupe de travail présidé par Pascal Morand, à la demande de Christine Lagarde, ministre de l’Économie, des Finances et de l’Emploi, il constitue une réflexion sur la dimension économique et les enjeux de la mondialisation, perçue en France comme étant la grande menace d’un libéralisme soi-disant sauvage.

Revue

Économie, emploi - Société, modes de vie

Competitiveness: the German Approach

One cannot help but be struck by the upturn in the German economy and in particular by the improvement in exports of manufactured products. François Michaux analyses here the factors that he thinks have allowed Germany to improve its global competitiveness.
Besides relocating certain manufacturing activities to Eastern Europe, the improvements in German competitiveness vis-à-vis the rest of the world can, he argues, basically be attributed to two factors: the negotiations under way about the length of the working week and the lowering of the tax burden on firms.
In this article he shows in particular how Germany - which, like France, had brought in the 35-hour week (Germany by collective agreements, France by legislation) - has had to renegotiate the length of the working week involving a concerted fall in wage costs and challenges to certain established rights. François Michaux stresses the advantages of flexibility obtained through negotiations at all levels, which he reckons is a far more efficient approach than the heavyhanded interventions of the French government, applied indiscriminately to all activities.
The second factor which, he argues, has helped to improve the competitive position of German industry is what economists call "competitive fiscal devaluation", which will be implemented between 2007 and 2009 and will involve a limited social value-added tax, a significant reduction in the tax burden on businesses, and the virtual exoneration of industries from the "green" tax.
The author illustrates his argument by examples largely drawn from the negotiations in the automobile industry, though he stresses that they are not peculiar to that sector and that they can be found in other sectors of the German economy.
By publishing this article, which some people will certainly consider provocative, we hope to stimulate a debate in the pages of Futuribles about the ways and means of updating the European social model.

Revue

Géopolitique - Société, modes de vie

The Lisbon agenda at the halfway point. France Measured against the Lisbon Agenda: Could do Better

European issues have been in the headlines in France in recent months because of the debate about the European Constitution to be voted on in a referendum at the end of May. Rarely has public opinion been so strongly aroused in the discussions leading up to a vote. Yet while this is an encouraging sign that people are prepared to re-engage with matters of public concern, it is a shame that the debates have too often neglected the fundamental questions such as the general direction that the European Union should take with regard to economic and social policies between now and 2010.
In March 2000, when the European Council met in Lisbon, the EU heads of state and government adopted a broad policy programme that set ambitious goals for the Union between now and 2010. This programme, labelled the "Lisbon agenda", aims to make the EU "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world" by 2010, with a wide range of goals (some with specific figures attached) in areas as diverse as the economy, employment, the environment, social cohesion, etc.
What progress has been made by the halfway point, in 2005? Are the aims likely to be achieved? What are the prospects for the EU reaching its goal?
To find answers to these questions, Futuribles asked various experts on or involved in European matters to assess progress on the Lisbon agenda at the halfway stage. Elvire Fabry and Gilbert Cette outline the agenda and the main objectives that it sets for member states, then Frédéric Allemand makes a comparative evaluation of how well different member states (including France) have performed relative to the agenda's specific targets. He reckons that, so far, the results are mixed. Jean Pisani-Ferry discusses how the Maastricht criteria have been relaxed for member countries that have made a determined effort to undertake structural reforms or to invest in research and development. Lastly, Marjorie Jouen looks at the outlook for the EU budgets for 2007-2013 and shows how they could promote economic and social dynamism in the Union, and thus contribute to achieving the targets set at Lisbon.

Revue

The Lisbon Agenda at the Halfway Point.Is Europe Giving Itself the Means to Fulfil its Ambitions?

European issues have been in the headlines in France in recent months because of the debate about the European Constitution to be voted on in a referendum at the end of May. Rarely has public opinion been so strongly aroused in the discussions leading up to a vote. Yet while this is an encouraging sign that people are prepared to re-engage with matters of public concern, it is a shame that the debates have too often neglected the fundamental questions such as the general direction that the European Union should take with regard to economic and social policies between now and 2010.
In March 2000, when the European Council met in Lisbon, the EU heads of state and government adopted a broad policy programme that set ambitious goals for the Union between now and 2010. This programme, labelled the "Lisbon agenda", aims to make the EU "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world" by 2010, with a wide range of goals (some with specific figures attached) in areas as diverse as the economy, employment, the environment, social cohesion, etc.
What progress has been made by the halfway point, in 2005? Are the aims likely to be achieved? What are the prospects for the EU reaching its goal?
To find answers to these questions, Futuribles asked various experts on or involved in European matters to assess progress on the Lisbon agenda at the halfway stage. Elvire Fabry and Gilbert Cette outline the agenda and the main objectives that it sets for member states, then Frédéric Allemand makes a comparative evaluation of how well different member states (including France) have performed relative to the agenda's specific targets. He reckons that, so far, the results are mixed. Jean Pisani-Ferry discusses how the Maastricht criteria have been relaxed for member countries that have made a determined effort to undertake structural reforms or to invest in research and development. Lastly, Marjorie Jouen looks at the outlook for the EU budgets for 2007-2013 and shows how they could promote economic and social dynamism in the Union, and thus contribute to achieving the targets set at Lisbon.

Revue

Géopolitique - Société, modes de vie

The Lisbon agenda at the halfway point. The EU Budget 2007-2013. The Future Policy on European Integration in the Face of the Challenges of Enlargement, Competitiveness and Financial Constraints

European issues have been in the headlines in France in recent months because of the debate about the European Constitution to be voted on in a referendum at the end of May. Rarely has public opinion been so strongly aroused in the discussions leading up to a vote. Yet while this is an encouraging sign that people are prepared to re-engage with matters of public concern, it is a shame that the debates have too often neglected the fundamental questions such as the general direction that the European Union should take with regard to economic and social policies between now and 2010.
In March 2000, when the European Council met in Lisbon, the EU heads of state and government adopted a broad policy programme that set ambitious goals for the Union between now and 2010. This programme, labelled the "Lisbon agenda", aims to make the EU "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world" by 2010, with a wide range of goals (some with specific figures attached) in areas as diverse as the economy, employment, the environment, social cohesion, etc.
What progress has been made by the halfway point, in 2005? Are the aims likely to be achieved? What are the prospects for the EU reaching its goal?
To find answers to these questions, Futuribles asked various experts on or involved in European matters to assess progress on the Lisbon agenda at the halfway stage. Elvire Fabry and Gilbert Cette outline the agenda and the main objectives that it sets for member states, then Frédéric Allemand makes a comparative evaluation of how well different member states (including France) have performed relative to the agenda's specific targets. He reckons that, so far, the results are mixed. Jean Pisani-Ferry discusses how the Maastricht criteria have been relaxed for member countries that have made a determined effort to undertake structural reforms or to invest in research and development. Lastly, Marjorie Jouen looks at the outlook for the EU budgets for 2007-2013 and shows how they could promote economic and social dynamism in the Union, and thus contribute to achieving the targets set at Lisbon.

Revue

Géopolitique - Société, modes de vie

The Lisbon agenda at the halfway point. The Reform of the Stability Pact: Neither Rules nor Discretion?

European issues have been in the headlines in France in recent months because of the debate about the European Constitution to be voted on in a referendum at the end of May. Rarely has public opinion been so strongly aroused in the discussions leading up to a vote. Yet while this is an encouraging sign that people are prepared to re-engage with matters of public concern, it is a shame that the debates have too often neglected the fundamental questions such as the general direction that the European Union should take with regard to economic and social policies between now and 2010.
In March 2000, when the European Council met in Lisbon, the EU heads of state and government adopted a broad policy programme that set ambitious goals for the Union between now and 2010. This programme, labelled the "Lisbon agenda", aims to make the EU "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world" by 2010, with a wide range of goals (some with specific figures attached) in areas as diverse as the economy, employment, the environment, social cohesion, etc.
What progress has been made by the halfway point, in 2005? Are the aims likely to be achieved? What are the prospects for the EU reaching its goal?
To find answers to these questions, Futuribles asked various experts on or involved in European matters to assess progress on the Lisbon agenda at the halfway stage. Elvire Fabry and Gilbert Cette outline the agenda and the main objectives that it sets for member states, then Frédéric Allemand makes a comparative evaluation of how well different member states (including France) have performed relative to the agenda's specific targets. He reckons that, so far, the results are mixed. Jean Pisani-Ferry discusses how the Maastricht criteria have been relaxed for member countries that have made a determined effort to undertake structural reforms or to invest in research and development. Lastly, Marjorie Jouen looks at the outlook for the EU budgets for 2007-2013 and shows how they could promote economic and social dynamism in the Union, and thus contribute to achieving the targets set at Lisbon.

Forum

Institutions - Société, modes de vie

Debate about the Risks of France Declining: the Camdessus Report

In May 2004, having made the revival of the economy and of employment its top priority, the French government (via the minister responsible for the economy at the time, Nicolas Sarkozy) asked Michel Camdessus (former head of the IMF and honorary governor of the Bank of France) to produce a report on the economic and financial outlook for France along with proposals for corresponding strategic policy options. Among other things, the report was also supposed to "shed some preliminary light on the structural obstacles hindering the dynamism" of the French economy.
The report, produced under the guidance of Michel Camdessus and drawing on contributions from about 20 experts with a wide variety of backgrounds, was handed over on 19 October 2004. Under the title Le Sursaut ("The Sudden Start"), it adopted a highly alarmist tone as to the prospects for the French economy: with the risk of failing to keep up, the lack of jobs, the growing debt, etc., it argued that the country is in a downward spiral and that swift action is needed in order to prevent it reaching rock bottom. The report then proposed a range of priority policy directions, in particular aimed at making the labour market more flexible, developing services, fostering education and research, etc.
The very pessimistic tone of the report and its perceived bias towards market forces generated controversy in France, with some commentators fearing that it might become the "Bible" of the current government. Futuribles here provides a platform for two economists with opposing views of the Camdessus Report: Michel Drancourt sees it as a "lucid" assessment of the state of France, whereas Gilles Cazes thinks that the prescription proposed is best forgotten.

Chapitre de rapport annuel vigie

Économie, emploi - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Chapitre 7 du rapport Vigie 2004 : Comment relever le défi de la compétitivité et de l’innovation ?

Il y a deux manières d'appréhender l'évolution à moyen et à long terme des économies française et européenne : l'une à l'aune des indicateurs économiques classiques (l'évolution du PIB, de la productivité, de la spécialisation productive, des forces et faiblesses respectives des différentes économies...) ; l'autre au travers des transformations structurelles qui caractérisent les économies modernes et de la capacité de nos propres économies à "prendre le virage" nécessaire pour relever le défi de la compétitivité ...

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Revue

Société, modes de vie

La France sur le déclin ?

France is on the decline - at least according to what one can often read and hear on the French media or in books. Jean-Jacques Salomon puts this pessimistic view into perspective, comparing and contrasting three recent books: two are by French authors (Jean Boissonnat, Plaidoyer pour une France qui doute [Plea for a France that Doubts]. Paris: Stock, 2004; and Jacques Verrière, L'Embellie française. Questions démographiques, enjeux civiques [The Bright Spell in France. Demographic Questions and Civic Issues]. Paris: Flammarion, 2004), who feel that the diagnosis should not be so harsh and, without denying that the country has problems, emphasize its positive aspects and the reasons for believing that it can recover; in the third, an Italian author, Aldo Schiavone (L'Histoire brisée. La Rome antique et l'Occident moderne [The Shattered History. Ancient Rome and the Modern West]. Paris: Belin, 2003), draws lessons from the decline of the Roman Empire for the West today. Greatness or decay, everything is relative and depends on the period, according to Jean-Jacques Salomon; what matters is to remain confident and sustain the things that underpin progress - the advancement of knowledge and the willingness to work.

Bibliography

Société, modes de vie

Compétitivité

Les thèmes de la compétitivité et de l'attractivité de l'économie française ont donné lieu, ces dernières années, à une littérature abondante. Les enseignements de ces travaux sont loin d'être consensuels et paraissent même parfois contradictoires. Le premier mérite du rapport de Michèle Debonneuil et Lionel Fontagné est de montrer que cette diversité tient à la complexité du concept de compétitivité, le diagnostic réalisé pour l'économie française variant fortement selon l'approche retenue. Afin de ne pas ...

(901 more words)