Communication

Bibliography

Société, modes de vie - Territoires, réseaux

À travers le monde d’après

À travers le monde d’après

Hubert Landier, fidèle collaborateur de Futuribles, est expert des relations sociales. Il intervient dans les grandes entreprises sur les problématiques liées au climat social, aux rapports sociaux et à la maîtrise des risques sociaux. C’est à la lumière de ces expériences de l’humain et des relations qu’il peut entretenir avec ses pairs qu’Hubert Landier s’est lancé dans l’écriture de son premier roman. En le lisant, on devine également les liens que l’auteur a ...

(528 more words)

Bibliography

Recherche, sciences, techniques - Territoires, réseaux

Au cœur des réseaux. Des sciences aux citoyens

Au cœur des réseaux. Des sciences aux citoyens

Les réseaux sont omniprésents dans le vivant, la société et la technique, les neurones du cerveau, les systèmes de télécommunication, le Web et Internet en sont des exemples. Leur nature est certes différente, mais ils ont des propriétés communes, comme le montre ce livre de Fabien Tarissan, un informaticien chercheur au CNRS (Centre national de la recherche scientifique), qui s’intéresse en particulier aux réseaux informatiques. Le premier chapitre du livre, qui en compte cinq, est consacré à la caractérisation ...

(1048 more words)

Bibliography

Institutions - Recherche, sciences, techniques

La Grande Dépossession. Pour une éthique numérique européenne

La Grande Dépossession. Pour une éthique numérique européenne

Dans cet ouvrage bref mais incisif, Maxime des Gayets nous livre un plaidoyer pour une éthique actualisée qui s’appuie sur un constat que nous pouvons tous faire : nous sommes entrés dans l’ère du numérique. La numérisation s’insinue dans la quasi-totalité de nos domaines d’activité, petits ou grands, personnels ou collectifs. Nous en bénéficions par le biais de services inédits et de facilités nouvelles, mais si la collecte massive des données a sa part de promesses, elle ...

(396 more words)

Bibliography

Société, modes de vie - Territoires, réseaux

The Attention Merchants : The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads

The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads

L’évolution de la communication au cours du XXe siècle nous a fait passer par plusieurs ères, depuis la propagande de guerre jusqu’à l’explosion du cyberespace, envahissant nos vies et nos activités sans qu’il soit possible d’envisager un retour en arrière. C’est l’histoire de cette évolution que nous raconte Tim Wu dans son très complet ouvrage The Attention Merchants. Plutôt que prendre le parti de nous relater une simple histoire de la communication, l ...

(552 more words)

Bibliography

Entreprises, travail - Recherche, sciences, techniques

Prospective de la prospective

Prospective de la prospective

Organisée par la Fondation 2100 au ministère français de la Recherche, la journée du 28 avril 2017 a réuni les principaux pôles français de prospective qui ont présenté leurs activités à une centaine de participants et ont échangé sur leurs démarches. Cela a permis de jeter les bases d’un bilan et d’une réflexion sur le futur de la prospective. À l’évidence, tous les acteurs se situent dans une « grande transition » (selon l’expression de la Société française ...

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Note de veille

Société, modes de vie

Lire l’avenir… dans les réseaux sociaux

Repérer les informations pertinentes près de deux mois avant qu’elles ne fassent le buzz, c’est possible ! L’université Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), l’université Autonome de Madrid ainsi que le NICTA (National Information and Communications Technology Australia) australien et les universités américaines de Yale et de San Diego (Californie), ont collaboré sur un projet de surveillance de réseaux sociaux et ils ont révélé des résultats surprenants. Les chercheurs de ce projet sont partis de l’hypothèse qu ...

(461 more words)

Actualité du futur

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Internet en 2063

À l’occasion de son 50e anniversaire, l’Association des professionnels de l’information et de la documentation a imaginé dans sa revue Documentaliste-Sciences de l’information des scénarios pour les 50 prochaines années. Des experts et des professionnels de l’information ont contribué à ce numéro, ainsi que des juristes et des sociologues. Dans l’un de ces articles, le chercheur Olivier Ertzscheid imagine l’Internet en 2063, transformé en outerweb et en infranet. Selon lui, à cet horizon ...

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Revue

Territoires, réseaux

France: Entry Gateways and Flows. Four Scenarios to 2040

Within the framework of the series begun in May 2012, aimed at echoing the “Territories 2040” exercise launched in France by the DATAR in 2009, Nadine Cattan presents the lessons learned by the working group she chaired on “Entry Gateways to France and Territorial Flow Systems.” She begins by detailing the analytical framework within which the group worked: the definition of the different types of flows (linked to mobility and leisure, to the information and knowledge economy, to the economy and finance and, lastly, to energy needs and constraints) and the various categories of gateways related to those flows (“place-gateways” and “corridor-gateways”, “territory-gateways” and “network-gateways”, and, lastly, “individuals-gateways” and “objects-gateways”).

Nadine Cattan then outlines the four major problematics at the heart of the foresight approach so far as these flow systems are concerned –territorialization, responsibility (in particular, the ability to regulate and control the territorial system), attractivity and vulnerability– together with the challenges associated with these. On this basis, 10 processes were identified that can explain the developmental dynamics of the system up to the year 2040. Using various combinations of these, four possible scenarios were identified: a “polarized” scenario characterized by a high degree of mobility at the global level, metropolization and high transport-related energy consumption; a “diluted” scenario involving a reduced quantity of journeys and a dematerialization of exchanges, but high levels of energy consumption within living spaces; an “archipelized” scenario, in which global space is structured around a number of large-scale autonomous nodes, long-haul mobility is limited and energy consumption low, but there are great inequalities; and, lastly, a “fluidified” scenario of a hypermobile, networked society, in which individual mobility increases enormously, but new territorial regulatory frameworks are required.

Chapitre de rapport annuel vigie

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Chapitre 5 du rapport Vigie 2012 : Sciences et techniques

PARTIE 1 : GRANDES AVANCÉES SCIENTIFIQUES ET TECHNIQUES Tendance 1. Vers une approche systémique et synthétique du vivant Tendance 2. Quand les biotechnologies prennent la relève Tendance 3. Les promesses des nanotechnologies Tendance 4. Vers un système de santé à distance et personnalisé Tendance 5. La lente émergence de la fusion thermonucléaire Tendance 6. L’invasion des robots PARTIE 2 : TECHNOLOGIES DE L’INFORMATION ET DE LA COMMUNICATION Tendance 1. Croissance des puissances informatiques disponibles Tendance 2. Réticulation croissante de la ...

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Revue

Éducation - Société, modes de vie

Learning in the Age of Web 2.0: A Roundup of Innovative Practices in Europe

The development of social networks, which lends scope for new forms of exchange and the creation of a collective intelligence, plays a major role today in the changes affecting formal education. It is this precise phenomenon that Christine Redecker and Yves Punie address in this Futuribles special feature on the “School in the Digital Era.” They present in this article the main findings of an IPTS study on Learning 2.0. or, in other words, on the use of Web 2.0 – and, in particular, the social media – in education, and the role it can play in improving learning and stimulating innovation.
This study, conducted at the European level, is based on an analysis of the literature and on 250 case studies (including 16 in-depth studies) and an expert seminar. Beyond the assessment of significant innovations described in the study, Redecker and Punie provide interesting insights into the new styles of learning among young people, showing particularly that the use of Web 2.0 both requires and facilitates technological, pedagogical and organizational innovations, thereby contributing to a modernization of educational institutions that is crucial to facing the challenges of the 21st century. Without concealing the challenges that remain to be faced or the obstacles to be overcome, they end by proposing various recommendations for confronting these challenges.

Revue

Éducation - Institutions

The Digital in French Schools

In this issue’s special feature on “Schooling in the Digital Era”, Alain-Marie Bassy draws on a historical analysis of the French case to show how digital media have gradually invaded every facet of the education system. First, he reminds us that this enormous change has been accompanied by a highly significant semantic evolution in the way these changing realities are referred to, with the emergence of a slightly anachronistic terminology aimed at reassuring teachers (particularly the older ones, who are often uneasy at the ever-renewing technologies, guarded as to how they are to be appropriately used in teaching, and wary of the dexterity with which their pupils handle them). Bassy underscores the main upheavals that are taking place in terms of the operation of schools and of governance in the implementation of education policy… Lastly, he makes a plea for giving more responsibility to each school or college and lays down some conditions required by a successful strategy for the use of digital technology within the school.

Revue

Éducation - Société, modes de vie

Émile’s Children: Thoroughgoing Change in the Knowledge Process in the Digital Era

In the so-called developed societies, information and communication technologies are now to be found everywhere. They are changing ways of life and social relations at a deep level. Through the extent of the supply of information and the ease of access enjoyed by any individual connected to the Internet, the digital media are thoroughly transforming our ways of thinking and being in the world. This inevitably has major consequences for the processes of access to knowledge and, hence, for education systems.
In this Futuribles special feature on “Schooling in the Digital Era”, Paul Mathias presents his philosophical reflections on the question, showing the thoroughgoing transformation, in this context, of the very nature of the knowledge-acquisition process – and how it breaks with the traditional norms and methods of the learning of specific disciplines within the educational universe – and analysing the impact of that transformation.
Massive technological change within the school produces a radical transformation of the norms and methods required for it to achieve its pedagogical goals. As a site of knowledge, the school is now saturated with highly varied forms of intelligence. Its ICT tools are not new instruments for performing old tasks, but represent profound mutations in the very knowledge process, its nature and, hence, its horizons. What should the school now teach? What intellectual challenges is it called on to meet? How is it to escape from the engulfing ocean of digital flows?

Note de veille

Économie, emploi - Entreprises, travail

Les enjeux de l’e-réputation pour les entreprises

Être présent sur Internet est devenu indispensable pour une majorité d’entreprises, que ce soit pour proposer des biens et services, ou simplement pour « exister » sur la Toile. Mais elles doivent aussi faire face à un nouveau défi : surveiller leur réputation en ligne, ou e-réputation.

Revue

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Science and Denial: On Merchants of Doubt by Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway

In June 2010 a highly instructive book appeared in the USA on the way a handful of influential scientists have managed, over the last 50 years, to spread confusion within public opinion on a number of scientific questions, with the sole aim of serving specific economic or political interests. André Lebeau has read this book, Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2010) for Futuribles. He outlines its argument here, showing the extent to which these few scientists have manipulated opinion and, at times, cast discredit on scientifically established facts, without any real scientific legitimacy, but merely because they knew how to handle the media machine and could harness it to their “cause”.

Whether acting for tobacco magnates, for the producers of fertilizers or other pollutants, or simply for ideological ends (e.g. anti-communism), it is the logic of denial that drives them. It is essential to understand this logic, particularly as these types of pseudo-scientists are now tending to focus on the debate on global warming (over which there is a virtual consensus among scientists) and they must not be allowed to delay regulation, which is both essential and, even as things stand, complicated to organize on an international scale.

Chapitre de rapport annuel vigie

Recherche, sciences, techniques

Chapitre 6 du rapport Vigie 2010 : Sciences et techniques

PARTIE 1 : GRANDES AVANCÉES SCIENTIFIQUES ET TECHNIQUES Tendance 1 : Vers une approche systémique du vivant Tendance 2 : Quand les biotechnologies prennent la relève Tendance 3 : L’essor de la chimie supramoléculaire Tendance 4 : Vers un système de santé à distance et personnalisé Incertitude 1 : Vers une pratique de la thérapie génique ? Incertitude 2 : Le pari de la thermofusion nucléaire Incertitude 3 : Les fondements de la physique repensés ? PARTIE 2 : INFORMATION, COMMUNICATION ET RÉSEAUX Tendance 1 : Croissance des puissances informatiques disponibles ...

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Note de veille

Géopolitique - Recherche, sciences, techniques

La maîtrise de l’information, dernière arme stratégique en « AfPak » ?

Alors que la situation continue de s’enliser en AfPak (la zone Afghanistan-Pakistan), les États-Unis préconisent une nouvelle stratégie. Désormais, le chemin vers la victoire passe par la maîtrise de la primauté de l’information et la circulation de celle-ci, une idée déjà présente dans le dernier rapport sur la transformation de l’armée américaine (1). La route s’annonce cependant longue au vu de l’importance des systèmes de communication mis en place par les Talibans en Afghanistan tout ...

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Revue

Institutions - Recherche, sciences, techniques

The Challenge of High Bandwidth for Local Authorities

French local authorities are currently doing more and more to improve their communications infrastructures, as can be seen from the figure published in January 2007 by the Association of Cities and Local Authorities for Electronic Communications: 448 million Euros were invested in public open-access networks in 2006. But what kind of initiatives are these? There are as many forms of intervention as there are local authorities, and this diversity is a good thing.
Nevertheless, digital technologies are such an important factor in people's everyday lives, in local development and planning, and in a region's competitiveness that it would be suicidal for local authorities to make commitments in this field without a great deal of prior strategic thinking, especially given the wide range of actors involved who are powerful and in competition with each other. How can the local authorities find a way, between the state (the monopoly provider in the past), the new generation of providers and the equipment manufacturers, to create local public access to very high bandwidth networks without themselves having to finance investments that should really be the responsibility of the other actors just mentioned?
Agnès Huet and Pascal Buléon offer their view of this important issue. They do not avoid discussing either the technical debates or the selfish behaviour of some of the actors who try to make the local authorities provide funding without giving them any decision-making capacity. Hardly a week passes without some spectacular initiative somewhere in the world to improve local digital access, such as the free wi-fi offered in San Francisco by Google, but it is obvious that in this race, there will be winners and losers. The authors plead the case here that the losers in France should not be the local authorities and, ultimately, the users.